Pediatric Remission And Cure
The unique context of perinatal HIV infection necessitates pediatric-specific strategies to achieve ART-free remission in children. The case of the Mississippi child, who started therapy ~30hours after birth and achieved remission off ART for 27 months before virus rebounded,, raised the possibility that remission for children can be attained. Subsequent reports of early-treated pediatric cases with long-term virological control off ART have provided examples of post-treatment control in children,.
The nature of the reservoir in children is unique from that in adults. For example, naive CD4+T cells are a more important reservoir for the virus in children,. Further development of infant nonhuman primate models for evaluating ART and cure strategies will contribute to our understanding of the HIV reservoir and how to target it in the unique setting of infancy and immune development, but an understanding of the limitations of this model is also crucially important,,,,.
Many of the recent advances in understanding HIV persistence during ART in adults, including frequency and transcriptional activity of intact virus, clonal expansion, sites of proviral integration, and inducibility, need to be applied to studies of children. Optimizing methods that can be adapted to small blood volumes are also needed.
Characterization Of The Complete Hiv Reservoir
HIV DNA can be detected in CD4+T cells in blood and lymphoid tissue in nearly all people with HIV on ART. These viral genomes are mainly defective. Only a small proportion appear to be intact and potentially replication-competent. But the HIV reservoir goes beyond circulating CD4+T cells it also includes tissue-resident CD4+T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, further complicating efforts to characterize and quantify it. In vitro, HIV preferentially integrates into transcriptionally active genes however, in people with HIV on ART, many proviruses , including intact ones, have been identified in genomic regions that are silent , which limits or precludes their reactivation.
Fig. 1: Multidimensional nature of the HIV reservoir.
The HIV reservoir can be defined across a number of dimensions, including: anatomical and microanatomical locations, cell type , cell functional profile , pool of proviruses with a particular functional profile or triggering event , and integration-site features of the rebounding virus.
Biological sex can influence HIV pathogenesis, the immune response to HIV infection, and response to antiviral therapy. Furthermore, in some but not all studies, womens reservoirs have been shown to be less transcriptionally active and less inducible than those of men,,,,. Sex, therefore, is a critical variable that should be considered as new therapies to target the reservoir are developed.
Box 1 The Global Cure Strategyforming A Consensus
The Global Cure Strategy was created using a full online process during the COVID-19 pandemic from November 2020 to August 2021. The co-chairs of the initiative identified the major topics which were divided into eight subthemes, each with its own working group, which included a chair, three scientific experts, at least one community member, an IAS Research-for-Cure fellow, and an industry representative. Working groups met at least twice virtually to generate a summary of key advances and recommendations for the next five years. The steering committee consisted of the chairs of each working group, the co-chairs of the cure strategy and a community expert, selected for diversity in geographic background, gender, age, and expertise. We engaged people living with HIV at all levels as well as a wide range of scientific and nonscientific stakeholders.
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Cold Compress For Hives
A cold compress gives instant relief from the itching caused by hives.
You should put some ice in a bag and then wrap it in a towel. Put the ice pack on the hives for quick relief from the itchiness. Dont leave the cold pack on for longer than 10 minutes at a time and remember never to put ice directly onto the skin.
This remedy, however, wont be effective for people whose hives are caused by extreme cold .
Does This Mean There Is A Cure For Hiv
So while we are not quite there yet in terms of finding a cure that works for a broad swath of people, the findings of a second woman who appears to have rid herself of HIV offers hope and a way to further vaccine and cure research, bringing us one step closer to ending HIV as a public health crisis.
HIV is a tricky virus that our immune systems struggle to fight off, especially long-term. Nature Immunology and Nature Medicine created an excellent video that explains how our bodies react to HIV and try to fight it off.
Gupta, R. K., Peppa, D., Hill, A. L., Gálvez, C., Salgado, M., Pace, M., McCoy, L. E., Griffith, S. A., Thornhill, J., Alrubayyi, A., Huyveneers, L. E., Nastouli, E., Grant, P., Edwards, S. G., Innes, A. J., Frater, J., Nijhuis, M., Wensing, A. M., Martinez-Picado, J., Olavarria, E. . Evidence for HIV-1 cure after CCR532/32 allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation 30 months post analytical treatment interruption: A case report. The Lancet HIV, 7, e340-e347.
Howard, J. . A second HIV patient may have been cured of infection without stem cell treatment, in extremely rare case. CNN.
Roberts, M. . Second patient cured of HIV, say doctors. BBC News.
Roberts, M. . Rare case of womans body ridding itself of HIV. BBC News.
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What Is An Hiv Cure
There are two different visions of a potential HIV cure: treatment-free remission and viral eradication.
Treatment-free remission means the virus is controlled without the need for ART drugs, which a person has to take every day for life. Millions of people who have HIV canât afford ART, so other treatments are needed. This idea of an HIV cure is also called a functional cure.
Treatment-free remission means that youâd:
- Live a healthy life thatâs of normal length
- Not have to take ART or any other HIV-related drugs to keep the virus under control
- Not be able to pass on HIV to others
Many therapies are being studied as a way to control HIV without the need for daily ART. These include antibody therapies and therapeutic vaccines. They donât prevent infection, but stimulate your own immune system to fight it.
Viral eradication is another way of looking at a potential cure. Itâs also known as a sterilizing cure. Scientists believe it would take a two-part treatment to wipe out HIV in a personâs body. The first part would involve drugs that make the cells in the HIV reservoir multiply and express proteins that are like a signal to your immune system. The second part would include drugs that detect those protein signals, then seek out and kill the virus.
Other types of drugs that may be able to seek out and kill HIV include histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein kinase activators, latency securing agents, and immunotoxins. These drugs may be used in combination.
Will We Have An Hiv Cure
Although there are several approaches that could eventually bring a functional HIV cure, there are still multiple challenges ahead. One of the biggest concerns around any HIV treatments is the virus ability to quickly mutate and develop resistance, and for many of these new approaches there is still no data on whether the virus will be able to become resistant.
So far, none of these functional cures have reached late-stage clinical testing, and several companies have dropped their HIV programs over the past few years. In addition, many HIV trials had to be stopped during the Covid-19 pandemic, delaying the progress of the whole field for multiple months.
Until a functional cure gets through clinical trials, other approaches against HIV currently in development include preventive vaccines, which so far have proved elusive. In 2021, Johnson & Johnson pulled a phase IIb vaccine study that showed limited protection. However, the company is continuing to test this approach using a different vaccine regimen in a phase III trial running in America and Europe. The European AIDS Vaccine Initiative is also running several clinical trials testing vaccines that make the immune system produce protective antibodies against HIV.
Moderna, one of the early developers of messenger RNA vaccines against Covid-19, began two phase I trials in January 2022 testing an mRNA vaccine for HIV.
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The Fight Against Hiv
HIV is a retrovirus that inserts itself into the human genome, making copies of itself and also tricks the immune system. It targets and renders the immune system inefficient, thus also attracting a host of other infections in a person.
The leading cause of death among HIV patients, who have not yet progressed to AIDS, is accidental death or suicide, or other illnesses including lung disease .
So far, only two people have been cured of HIV through treatment. In 2008, Timothy Ray Brown from California, who came to be known as the Berlin Patient, was the first to be cured of AIDS. His identity was revealed in 2010, and he died in 2020 from leukaemia.
Adam Castillejo, who was known as the London Patient, was the second to be cured, in 2019. Both men had painful bone marrow transplants from donors with a rare genetic mutation that is resistant to HIV.
They were also on antiretroviral therapy.
All HIV patients are required to be on lifelong antiretroviral therapy that prevents the disease from progressing to AIDS. But stem cell transplants and bone marrow transplants are extremely invasive and expensive surgeries that cannot be scaled up.
Another patient, a 36-year-old man in Brazil, dubbed the Sao Paulo Patient, was temporarily able to remove the virus from his body using a drug cocktail and without surgery last year, but the virus rebounded with a detectable viral load 72 weeks or 15 months after he went off antiretroviral therapy.
Have There Been Any Breakthroughs
One reason to hope for a cure for HIV is that experimental treatments seem to have worked in a handful of people already.
The Berlin Patient: In 2008, a man with HIV named Timothy Ray Brown was effectively cured while living in Germany. Researchers treated his blood with a stem cell transplant for leukemia, but the treatment also cured his HIV. His stem cell donor carried a mutation of an HIV-related gene called CCR5. This mutation makes a person almost completely resistant to infection. Brown was the only person to be cured of HIV until 2019, when two others were effectively cured with a similar stem cell therapy.
Visconti Cohort: In 2010, a baby born with HIV in Mississippi began ART soon after birth and was in remission for 2 years after they stopped, but the virus did come back. A trial called the Visconti Cohort studied 20 people with HIV in France. They also started ART within weeks of infection. They were able to stop taking the drugs and still have low levels of HIV years later. Another trial of 15 children with HIV in Thailand had similar results. Itâs important to remember that these were controlled studies if you have HIV, you should never stop ART without talking to your doctor.
These are positive signs, but the studies are very small. We need more research on these potential cures to be able to develop treatments that would safely work on many people, not just a small number.
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/5what Does It Mean For The General Population Of Hiv
Dr. Xu Yu of the Massachusetts General Hospital believes that the latest discovery could help expand on further therapies looking forward to preventing the condition.
We are now looking toward the possibility of inducing this kind of immunity in persons on ART through vaccination, with the goal of educating their immune systems to be able to control the virus with ART, he explained.
Additionally, the team of researchers, while not making any confirmations, say, “Collectively, our results raise the possibility that a sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection, defined by the absence of detectable intact HIV-1 proviruses, is an extremely rare but possible clinical outcome.”
“It means there must be more people like this out there,” says researchers Natalia Laufer.
Pushing The Envelope In Hiv
Dr. Yvonne J. Bryson, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at UCLAs David Geffen School of Medicine, described the new case study Tuesday at the virtually held annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
The New York patient, as the woman is being called, because she received her treatment at New York-Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City, was diagnosed with HIV in 2013 and leukemia in 2017.
Bryson and Persaud have partnered with a network of other researchers to conduct lab tests to evaluate the woman. At Weill Cornell, Dr. Jingmei Hsu and Dr. Koen van Besien from the stem cell transplant program paired with infectious disease specialist Dr. Marshall Glesby on patient care.
This team has long sought to mitigate the considerable challenge investigators face in finding a donor whose stem cells could both treat a patients cancer and cure their HIV.
Traditionally, such a donor must have a close enough human leukocyte antigen, or HLA, match to maximize the likelihood that the stem cell transplant will engraft well. The donor must also have the rare genetic abnormality conferring HIV resistance.
This genetic abnormality largely occurs in people with northern European ancestry, and even among people native to that area, at a rate of only about 1 percent. So for those lacking substantial similar ancestry, the chance of finding a suitable stem cell donor is particularly low.
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Apple Cider Vinegar Supplements Distilled Water
3 User Reviews
I have been HIV positive for three years now. The doctors have been pushing me to start anti-viral drug therapy. I have resisted since my T-cells have remained over 700 and viral around 60,000. I have never felt healthier. I work out 6 days a week, grow my own organic veggies, sleep 8 hours a night, do not smoke or do drugs, and drink very little booze. With the help of internet research, I drink two raw organic apple cider vinegar drinks a day, take Selenium, alot of mult-vitamins/minerals and drink only distilled water. This has worked for me, perhaps this will help some of you.
Apple Cider Vinegar, Supplements, Distilled Water
I too have been positive for 3 years… Back when I first tested positive the docs wanted me to start on the meds urgently, however I didn’t see the point in taking extremely toxic medication on 09/17/2009
I am dying from AIDS. I was healthy with it since 1993. Then 4 months ago I began to drink lemon juice. This activated the virus mycoplasma and my skin began to turn purple. You can live with hiv for a long time if you stay away from citric acid, this is how it grows.
All these cures are toxic and useless.
Eat chicken soup and stay away from citrus and sugar fruit and you will be healthy. But it is the lemon juice that caused my body to break down. I would stay away from Vitamin C also, acidifies the body, no matter what they say. I am living proof.
Can Honey Really Be A Treatment For Hiv/aids
Before reading this article on honey and HIV/AIDS, there is important information you should have in mind. The treatment that will be proposed to you for HIV/AIDS with honey is backed up by years of research from well known institutes. However, this so-called honey will not make your virus go away totally, instead it will go a long in reducing the effects of this virus. More importantly, the traditional experts of Africandoctor have discovered the best medicinal herbal formulation that you can use to accompany the honey which make the treatment perfect thereby reducing Virus to an extent you would not believe it existed in you.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome occurs due to infection caused by human immune deficiency virus . This infection causes immunosuppression in the body. It is a serious and lifethreatening condition that affects many people. However, the replication and effect of this virus can be reduced through the help of honey and our herbal formulation made of jatropha against HIV/AIDS.
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Natural Remedies To Treat An Std At Home
The best way to avoid contracting STDs is to always use a latex condom during sex. Or better still, if you know your partner has an STD, abstain altogether until they are treated and free of the parasite.
No doubt dealing with a sexually transmitted disease can be uncomfortable, painful, and even embarrassing. But that still shouldnt take away from the urgency of the problem. If you find yourself grappling with an STD, deal with it swiftly for your own sake as well as for your partner. For women, theres a more pressing need to do so because symptoms may sometimes worsen or cause more complications. For instance, if youre pregnant, an STD may adversely affect the development of the baby.1
While there are over 20 plus STDs, some of the major ones you may encounter are:
It is important to treat STDs with the right medication to avoid complications. They may even be life-threatening if not dealt with properly.
If youve contracted an STD, what are your options? Depending on whether its an infection of bacteria, yeast, virus, or parasites, you will need antibiotics or other medicines to manage the infection and its symptoms.10 But what if youd prefer to manage the symptoms with a home remedy? Ideally, you should first take the course of medicines needed to eliminate or control the infection. The natural remedies that follow can be used as complementary or alternative therapy to limit the infection and alleviate symptoms and get relief.
Is There A Cure For Hpv
Theres no cure for HPV. But most cases of it will go away on their own. If you contract HPV you should still make an appointment with a doctor. Theyll be able to treat your symptoms and ask you to come in for repeat testing in a year to see if the HPV infection persists.
During this testing, if any cell changes have developed, theyll decide if these need further follow-up. HPV can be diagnosed during a vaginal or anal pap smear.
HPV is not curable, but warts, which are a side effect of HPV, can be. Some warts will go away on their own, but you should still see a doctor to determine the best course of treatment. Treatments for the different types of warts can range from cryotherapy or electrosurgery to over-the-counter medication to topical creams.
If precancerous or cancerous cells are discovered in the cervix, your doctor may remove them in one of three ways:
- surgical conization, which involves removing a cone-shaped piece of tissue
- loop electrosurgical excision, which involves removing the tissue with a hot wire loop
If precancerous or cancerous cells are discovered in other areas of the body, like on the penis, the same options for removal can be used.
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