Getting Pregnant And Having Children With An Hiv
According to the British government organization AIDSMap, HIV-positive women can have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies, without passing HIV to their child. But this takes careful planning, and extra steps are necessary to reduce the risk. Talk to your doctor if youre planning to become pregnant, since your best options may be affected by whether youre on ART, whether your health is generally good, and which person in the relationship has HIV.
Other options for couples affected by HIV include:
Are Certain Activities Higher Risk
Yep. Penis-in-anus and penis-in-vagina sex are higher risk activities.
Penis-in-anus sex is the riskiest type of sex for contracting or transmitting HIV. The risk is higher for the receptive partner, sometimes referred to as the bottom.
This is because the rectums lining is very thin. Tiny abrasions give infected bodily fluids direct access to the bloodstream.
The risk is slightly lower for the insertive partner, or top, though they can still contract HIV. The virus can enter the body through the urethra, the foreskin , or any open sores or tiny scratches on the penis.
A person with a vagina can contract HIV from unprotected sex when the virus enters the body through the mucus membranes lining the vagina and cervix.
The partner with the penis contracts it from blood or vaginal fluid that enters the body through the urethra, foreskin, or small cuts or open sores on the penis.
This involves the mother with HIV taking ART as prescribed all through pregnancy and childbirth, as well as giving the baby HIV medicine for 4 to 6 weeks after birth.
If I Am Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Also Have Hiv
Most women with HIV can protect their baby from becoming infected during pregnancy. Proper pre-natal treatment can reduce the risk that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus to her child to less than 1 percent. The only way these special treatments can be provided is if the health care professionals know the mother is living with HIV. Treatment is most effective when started early in pregnancy. HIV-positive moms should not breastfeed their babies because HIV is sometimes passed this way.
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Sex Toys Fingering Fisting And Hiv
Sex toys, such as dildos, come into direct contact with rectal/vaginal fluids and mucous membranes. This means sharing an uncleaned dildo or other toy can pass on HIV. Using sex toys on your own has no risk.
There is no direct risk of HIV from fingering or fisting , but be aware of being rough. Damage to anal/vaginal tissues, especially if there is any bleeding, will increase risk of HIV transmission if you then have anal, vaginal or oral sex later.
All Exposures Are Not Equal
The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a higher risk of HIV transmission than others. Below are estimates from a 2014 meta-analyses that have combined the results of studies conducted in high-income countries.
A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in 2014.1 The analysis estimated the risk through receptive anal sex to be 1.4%. The analysis estimated the risk for insertive anal sex to be 0.11%.
This 2014 meta-analysis also explored the risk of transmission through vaginal sex.1 It estimated the risk of HIV transmission through receptive vaginal sex to be 0.08% . The analysis estimated the risk from insertive vaginal sex to be 0.04% .1
No meta-analysis estimates exist for oral sex because too few good-quality studies have been completed. This is because it is difficult to find people whose only risk of HIV transmission is unprotected oral sex. The 2014 review concluded that vaginal and penile oral sex pose a low risk of transmission but was unable to calculate a risk estimate.1
Risk of HIV transmission from different types of unprotected sex
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Should I Have Oral Sex
Talking to your partner about protection before you start having oral sex will help make things easier. This may feel embarrassing but taking responsibility for protecting yourself and your partner is an important part of having sex. If you find it too awkward to talk about then you may not be ready to have oral sex just yet.
You should never give or receive oral sex just because you feel forced into it. Dont be pressured into any sex act by comments like it doesnt mean weve had real sex youll still be a virgin, or if you dont want sex at least go down on me, or its not as risky as having intercourse. If one of you isnt comfortable with the decision it can ruin the whole experience. Oral sex should be fun for both of you.
Our article Am I ready for sex? will help you work out what is right for you.
What Other Precautions Should You Take
Asking for someoneâs vaccination status is a must if youâre interested in sleeping with them. You can also ask about COVID exposure and whether the person is following social distancing guidelines, but Dr. PeÃ±a cautions that this is a less reliable metric. âNowadays, the virus is so ubiquitous that you might not know you had an exposure, especially since there are a lot of asymptomatic carriers,â she says. âPeople need to remember that even if you donât have symptoms, you can still be carrying it.â
Another thing to keep in mind is that STIs are still around, and itâs still just as important as ever to ask questions about STI status before having sex with someone. âRight now, weâre seeing several outbreaks of HIVâ across the U.S., Dr. PeÃ±a says. âThatâs partially because people have refocused their attention on COVID, and they forget about the things that are always there. So, I canât stress this enough: please practice safe sex.â Use a condom or dental dam every time you have sex, especially in non-monogamous situations. And since condoms are only 85% effective at preventing pregnancy, you might also want to use a secondary form of birth control, like the pill or an IUD.
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What If I Miss One Dose Will My Viral Load Become Detectable Again
If you are undetectable, and have been taking your medications every day recently, your viral load will very likely stay undetectable even if you miss one dose. The HIV medications are so good these days that it can take a week or even sometimes up to several weeks or more for peoples viral loads to become detectable after medications are stopped.
About Undetectable And Hiv
Chances are youve probably heard of the term undetectable, undetectable viral load or UVL when chatting to friends or potential sexual partners, on apps or social media, or in blogs, magazines and medical journals.
But, what does it mean?
Having an undetectable viral load not only improves a HIV positive guys overall health, but it also means he wont transmit HIV to his partners. When a HIV positive guy is on treatment, within six months he can, in most cases, achieve an UVL.
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What Should I Know If My Friend Has Hiv
It may not seem like your friend with HIV is sick at all. People with HIV can date, have sex, get married, and have families. Having HIV doesnt mean your friend will be sick or disabled by the virus. With the right medicines, people with HIV can stay healthy for a long time. What Else Should I Know?
How Do You Give A Man Oral Sex
A mans penis does not need to be erect for you to start oral sex but you may want to use your hand to arouse him first. If you hold his penis during oral sex, you can control how deep it goes into your mouth. You can move your hand allowing the penis to go as far into your mouth as you are comfortable with.
A mans penis is highly sensitive, so be gentle at first and slowly work up to a faster pace. You can try different tongue, mouth and head movements to see what works best but never use your teeth unless asked.
When you give a man oral sex you can stop at any time and its up to you to decide if you want to let him ejaculate in your mouth. Of course, if hes wearing a condom this isnt an issue, and it means you will both be protected against sexually transmitted infections .
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Tattoos And Body Piercings
- There are no known cases in the United States of anyone getting HIV this way.
- However, it is possible to get HIV from tattooing or body piercing if the equipment used for these procedures has someone elses blood in it or if the ink is shared. This is more likely to happen when the person doing the procedure is unlicensed because of the potential for unsanitary practices such as sharing needles or ink.
- If you get a tattoo or a body piercing, be sure that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed and that they use only new or sterilized needles, ink, and other supplies.
If My Viral Load Is Undetectable Can I Transmit Hiv To Other People
Im very happy to say that we know the answer to this. If you are undetectable, and have been on HIV medications for at least six months, and you continue that treatment, the risk of transmitting HIV is effectively zero.
This finding has been well-established over the last six to seven years . After studying thousands of couples, over many years, research has shown that if an HIV-positive person is on effective HIV medications for at least six months, is undetectable, and stays on their HIV medications, they will not transmit HIV to other people.
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Thats Good News For All
Undetectable viral load is game-changing news for both poz and neg guys. If youre HIV poz, undetectable comes with amazing health benefits as well as the assurance that you are keeping the guys you play with safe.
And if youre neg, having sex with a poz guy whos undetectable can give you the confidence that you wont get HIV. UVL puts safety first for everyone.
What Are The Chances Of Getting Hiv Through Anal Or Vaginal Intercourse
One way to address the anxiety about infecting a partner is to understand the exact level of risk involved with different types of sexual activity. Among heterosexuals, vaginal intercourse is a common route of HIV transmission, with the woman at greater risk for HIV infection than the man. Says Henderson, The risk for infection for the female is about twice that of the male partner.
The type of sexual behavior that poses the greatest risk for passing on the HIV virus is receptive anal intercourse, Henderson says, explaining that the person receiving the penis in the anus is the receptive person. In heterosexual sex, that is the woman.
She notes that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , receptive anal intercourse carries a risk for HIV transmission 17 times greater than receptive vaginal intercourse. In men who have sex with men, anal intercourse also poses a risk of infection for the insertive partner, Henderson says, although the danger is 13 times greater for the receptive partner.
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How Do I Know If I Have It
You canât tell if someone has HIV just by looking at them. In fact, some people donât know they are infected with the virus for years, because they havenât noticed any symptoms. To know your status, you have to get tested.
However, some people experience symptoms in the first two to four weeks after theyâve been infected. These are usually described as an extremely bad flu â fever, a sore throat, headache, achy muscles and joints, and rash. This is called primary HIV infection, and whatâs happening here is that your body is trying to fight off the HIV infecting it.
What Are Hiv Symptoms
A day or two after getting infected, the HIV virus is detectable in the regional lymphatic tissue. Within 6 days,it can be found in the regional lymph nodes.
After 2 weeks, it is possible to detect the virus in the nervous system and pretty much in the entire body.
Once the virus replicates itself in the body, you may start to see symptoms in about 6 weeks.
Symptoms may include:
- Herpes simplex recurrent
- Tinea infections.
These symptoms can last up to 6 weeks or less. However, these symptoms are not specific to HIV. There are other virus infections that have similar symptoms such as influenza. The only way to eliminate HIV as the cause is by going for a test.
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Who Should Consider Taking Prep
PrEP is for people without HIV who are at very high risk for getting it. This includes:
Gay/bisexual men who
- Have an HIV-positive partner
- Have multiple partners, a partner with multiple partners, or a partner whose HIV status is unknown and
- Have anal sex without a condom OR
- Have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease in the last 6 months
Heterosexual men and women who
- Have an HIV-positive partner
- Have multiple partners, a partner with multiple partners, or a partner whose HIV status is unknown and
- Don’t always use a condom when having sex with people who inject drugs OR
- Don’t always use a condom when having sex with bisexual men
People who inject drugs and
- Share needles or other equipment to inject drugs OR
- Are at risk for getting HIV from sex
If you have a partner who is HIV-positive and are considering getting pregnant, talk to your health care provider about PrEP. Taking it may help protect you and your baby from getting HIV infection while you try to get pregnant, during pregnancy, or while breastfeeding.
How Does Hiv Spread During Sex
To spread HIV during sex, HIV infection in blood or sexual fluids must be transmitted to someone. Sexual fluids come from a mans penis or from a womans vagina, before, during, or after orgasm. HIV can be transmitted when infected fluid gets into someones body.
You cant spread HIV if there is no HIV infection. If you and your partners are not infected with HIV, there is no risk. An undetectable viral load does NOT mean no HIV infection. If there is no contactwithblood or sexual fluids, there is no risk. HIV needs to get into the body for infection to occur.
Safer sex guidelines are ways to reduce the risk of spreading HIV during sexual activity.
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No Contraceptive Method Can Give You 100 Percent Protection Against Hiv
Written by Tania Tarafdar | Updated : November 28, 2017 10:47 AM IST
You should know that there is no contraception method that is 100 percent safe and prevent pregnancy or AIDS and condoms cannot guarantee protection either. According to sexologist Dr. V Raina, there is always a risk of transmission when you have sex with an HIV-positive person. While wearing a condom can reduce your chances of contracting STD, any condom failure like a breakage or a tear will only have you contracting HIV.
There are few reasons why a condom failure happens, the most common ones being wearing the wrong size condom or wearing it the wrong way. Apart from this, lack of lubrication in the vaginal area, using a condom that is way past its expiry date and using wrong lubricants can also lead to a tear. However, the way you wear it makes the most difference. So, be careful while wearing the condom. If you have taken care of the other parameters then you can minimise the risk by wearing it the right way. Here are diseases that affect people with HIV.
The same applies even if you are having oral sex. If there is a condom breakage and you have an open cut or lesion in your mouth, you may contract the disease.
Telling Your Sex Partners
This may be one of the hardest things you have to do. But you need to tell your sex partner that you are living with HIV, whether you have a primary partner such as a spouse or girlfriend or boyfriend, have more than one partner, or are single or casually dating.
What follows are tips for talking to your main partner, other partners, and former partners.
Talking to your main partner
If you are in a relationship, one of the first things you will probably think about after learning that you have HIV is telling your partner or partners. For some couples, a positive HIV test may have been expected. For others, the news will be a surprise that can be difficult.
Your partner may not be prepared to offer you support during a time when you need it. Your partner may be worrying about their own HIV status. On the other hand, if you think you may have contracted HIV from your partner, you are probably dealing with your own feelings.
Unless your partner is known to have HIV infection, they should get an HIV test right away. Don’t assume that the results will come back positive, even if you have been having unprotected sex or sharing needles. Your partner may assume the worst and may blame you for possibly spreading the disease. It is important that you discuss these feelings with each other in an open and honest way, perhaps with a licensed counselor.
Talking to new partners
Talking to former partners
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