Wednesday, September 28, 2022

What Are The Causes Of Hiv Aids

Is There A Period When The Virus Isnt Transmittable

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

HIV is transmittable soon after its introduced into the body. During this phase, the bloodstream contains higher levels of HIV, which makes it easy to transmit it to others.

Since not everyone has early symptoms of HIV, getting tested is the only way to know if the virus has been contracted. An early diagnosis also allows an HIV-positive person to begin treatment. Proper treatment can eliminate their risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partners.

How Long Does It Take To Develop The Disease

There is no fixed period between the first contact with HIV and the development of the disease. Signs and symptoms resulting from infection with HIV develop in stages. Many infected individuals may have no symptoms for several years. But others may develop symptoms within three years from the time of infection.

Symptoms of HIV infection are fever, swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits, sweating, aches, fatigue, unexplained weight loss and diarrhea.

Within eight years, about 50 percent of all infected people develop specific conditions categorized as AIDS. These conditions include a lung disease called “pneumocystis carinii pneumonia,” skin tumours called “Kaposi’s sarcoma,” fungal and viral infections such as candidiasis and herpes zoster, and severe diarrhea.

Some AIDS patients also suffer from dementia resulting in problems with memory and thinking. AIDS patients are prone to various infections of the brain, just as they suffer from an unusually high number of cancers, bacterial and viral infections of other parts of the body.

What Else Should I Know

Treatment has improved greatly for people with HIV. By taking medicines and getting regular medical care, HIV-positive people can live long and healthy lives.

People with HIV need a medical care team for the best treatment and support.

If you or someone you know has HIV or AIDS it is important to:

  • goes to all doctor visits
  • takes all medicines exactly as directed
  • goes for all follow-up blood tests
  • understands what HIV/AIDS is and how it spreads
  • is physically active, gets enough sleep, and eats well

Find more information at:

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Phases Of Hiv Infection

Clinical HIV infection undergoes 3 distinct phases: acute seroconversion, asymptomatic infection, and AIDS. Each is discussed below.

Acute seroconversion

Animal models show that Langerhans cells are the first cellular targets of HIV, which fuse with CD4+ lymphocytes and spread into deeper tissues. In humans, rapid occurrence of plasma viremia with widespread dissemination of the virus is observed 4 days to 11 days after mucosal entrance of the virus.

There is no fixed site of integration, but the virus tends to integrate in areas of active transcription, probably because these areas have more open chromatin and more easily accessible DNA. This greatly complicates eradication of the virus by the host, as latent proviral genomes can persist without being detected by the immune system and cannot be targeted by antivirals.

During this phase, the infection is established and a proviral reservoir is created. This reservoir consists of persistently infected cells, typically macrophages, and appears to steadily release virus. Some of the viral release replenishes the reservoir, and some goes on to produce more active infection.

The proviral reservoir, as measured by DNA polymerase chain reaction , seems to be incredibly stable. Although it does decline with aggressive antiviral therapy, the half-life is such that eradication is not a viable expectation.

Asymptomatic HIV infection

AIDS

Can I Get Pregnant If I Have Hiv

The Myths And Facts Of HIV And AIDS

Some people think that HIV hurts your chances of getting pregnant, but this isnt true. If you have HIV and want to become pregnant, talk to your healthcare provider. Together you can make a plan before you try to get pregnant to keep you, your partner and any future children healthy.

HIV can spread to your partner during unprotected sex and to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Taking ART medications can greatly reduce your risk of transmitting HIV to your baby, especially if you have an undetectable viral load. Your provider may recommend that you dont breastfeed your baby and use formula instead.

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When To Seek Medical Care

Early diagnosis is key. If you think youve been exposed to HIV or have an encounter that put you at risk for HIV, you should seek medical care right away with a primary care doctor, urgent or walk-in clinic, or, if those are not available to you, a local emergency room.

Doctors can give you a medication called post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure to reduce your chances of developing HIV. But this medication needs to be taken within 72 hours of exposure. Ideally, youd start taking it within the first 24 hours.

If you think you were exposed to HIV in the past for example, if a former sexual partner tells you they have HIV its critical to seek medical care as soon as possible. The sooner you find out you have HIV, the sooner you can start treatment.

How Is Aids Diagnosed

Symptoms such as fever, weakness, and weight loss may be a sign that a persons HIV has advanced to AIDS. However, a diagnosis of AIDS is based on the following criteria:

  • A drop in CD4 count to less than 200 cells/mm3. A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood.
  • The presence of certain opportunistic infections.

Although an AIDS diagnosis indicates severe damage to the immune system, HIV medicines can still help people at this stage of HIV infection.

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Who Does Hiv Affect

Its a myth that HIV only infects certain people. Anyone can get HIV if theyre exposed to the virus. Having sex without a condom or sharing needles to inject drugs are the most common ways that HIV spreads.

Some populations are statistically more affected by HIV than others. Groups disproportionately affected by HIV include:

  • People who identify as gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men .
  • Certain races such as people who are Black or Hispanic.
  • Those who exchange sex for money or other items are also at high risk for HIV infection.

While these arent the only populations impacted by HIV, its important to consider that they face unique barriers to accessing preventative care, getting tested, and receiving comprehensive treatment. Homophobia, racism, poverty, and social stigmas around HIV continue to drive inequities and keep people from accessing high-quality healthcare.

Hiv Infection Can Be Diagnosed By A Simple Test

HIV – AIDS – Sign, Symptoms, Transmission and Treatment

On HIV transmission, the immune system produces antibodies against the virus. A blood or saliva test can detect those antibodies to determine if the virus is present. It can take several weeks after transmission for the HIV antibody test to come back positive.

Another test looks for antigens, which are proteins produced by the virus, and antibodies. This test can detect HIV just days after infection.

Both tests are accurate and easy to administer.

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The Biologic Basis For Aids

The specific details of the disease process that leads to AIDS are not fully understood despite considerable progress in the virology of HIV and the immunology of the human host, much of which has been driven by the urge to better understand AIDS.

There is a specific decline in the CD4+ helper T cells, resulting in inversion of the normal CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and dysregulation of B-cell antibody production. Immune responses to certain antigens begin to decline, and the host fails to adequately respond to opportunistic infections and normally harmless commensal organisms. Because the defect preferentially affects cellular immunity, the infections tend to be nonbacterial .

The pattern of opportunistic infections in a geographic region reflects the pathogens that are common in that area. For example, persons with AIDS in the United States tend to present with commensal organisms such as Pneumocystis and Candida species, homosexual men are more likely to develop Kaposi sarcoma because of co-infection with HHV8, and tuberculosis is common in developing countries.

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue plays a role in HIV replication. Although the portal of entry for HIV infection is typically through direct blood inoculation or exposure of the virus to genital mucosal surfaces, the GI tract contains a large amount of lymphoid tissue, making this an ideal site for HIV replication.

If I Am Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Also Have Hiv

Most women with HIV can protect their baby from becoming infected during pregnancy. Proper pre-natal treatment can reduce the risk that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus to her child to less than 1 percent. The only way these special treatments can be provided is if the health care professionals know the mother is living with HIV. Treatment is most effective when started early in pregnancy. HIV-positive moms should not breastfeed their babies because HIV is sometimes passed this way.

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The Effects Of Hiv On The Body

Most people are likely familiar with HIV, but they may not know how it can affect the body.

HIV destroys CD4 cells , which are critical to the immune system. CD4 cells are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from common diseases and infections.

As HIV gradually weakens the bodys natural defenses, signs and symptoms will occur.

Find out what happens when the virus enters the body and interrupts its systems.

Once HIV enters the body, it launches a direct attack on the immune system.

How quickly the virus progresses will vary by:

  • a persons age
  • how quickly theyre diagnosed

The timing of their treatment can make a huge difference as well.

HIV targets the types of cells that would normally fight off an invader such as HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4 cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells.

Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving a person at risk for serious illnesses and infections.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the final stage of HIV. At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater.

However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier a person receives treatment, the better their outcome will be.

Early on, HIV symptoms may be mild enough to be dismissed.

How Do I Avoid Passing Hiv On To Someone Else

HIV &  AIDS Symptoms, Treatment, Testing

If you are infected with HIV, the best way to prevent spreading HIV infection to others is to:

  • take your medication as prescribed there is a very low risk of passing on HIV if your own infection is under control
  • use condoms and a water-based lubricant for anal and vaginal sex
  • never share needles, syringes and other injecting equipment

If you have HIV infection, you are expected to notify anyone who is at risk of exposure from you:

  • Tell people you have had sex or taken drugs with . Your doctor can help you decide who may be at risk and help you to contact them either personally or anonymously.
  • Tell anyone you intend to have sex with about your HIV status . This is required by law in some states.

If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor about starting antiretroviral treatment to prevent the infection passing to the baby during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. Read more about HIV and pregnancy.

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Neurological Complications Of Hiv

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV weakens and slowly destroys the bodys immune system, leaving you vulnerable to life-threatening complications from an infection or certain cancers.

As HIV and AIDS battle your immune system, your central nervous system is also affected. HIV and AIDS both cause a number of neurological complications, particularly if HIV progresses to AIDS.

Today, antiretroviral medicineswhen taken correctly and promptlyhelp to slow down the progression of HIV. They also help to delay the onset of or to decrease the risk of progression to AIDS. Controlling HIV can also reduce your risk for neurological complications of HIV.

How Can I Take Care Of Myself While Living With Hiv

It’s very important to take your medications as prescribed and to make sure you dont miss appointments. This is called treatment adherence.

If you miss medications, even by accident, HIV can change how it infects your cells , potentially causing your medications to stop working. If your schedule prevents you from taking medications on time or making it to appointments, talk to your healthcare provider.

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What Is The Treatment For Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

Human immunodeficiency virus is usually treated with different combinations of antiretroviral medicines to help control HIV infection.

Early HIV infection is often treated with one of the following antiretroviral therapy regimens:

There is no cure for acquired immune deficiency syndrome but medications are used to reduce the amount of HIV virus in the body, keep the immune system healthy, and decrease the complications of the disease that can occur.

Types of medication used to treat AIDS include:

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Protease inhibitors

Rash Related To Medication

What is HIV/AIDS? Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash.

This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesnt, a change in medications may be needed.

Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious.

Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

  • trouble breathing or swallowing
  • dizziness
  • fever

Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.

When 30 percent of the skin is affected, its called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed.

While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, its important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes.

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Living With Hiv: What To Expect And Tips For Coping

More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. Its different for everybody, but with treatment, many can expect to live a long, productive life.

The most important thing is to start antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible. By taking medications exactly as prescribed, people living with HIV can keep their viral load low and their immune system strong.

Its also important to follow up with a healthcare provider regularly.

Other ways people living with HIV can improve their health include:

  • Make their health their top priority. Steps to help people living with HIV feel their best include:
  • fueling their body with a well-balanced diet
  • exercising regularly
  • avoiding tobacco and other drugs
  • reporting any new symptoms to their healthcare provider right away
  • Focus on their mental health. They could consider seeing a licensed therapist who is experienced in treating people with HIV.
  • Use safer sex practices. Talk to their sexual partner. Get tested for other STIs. And use condoms and other barrier methods every time they have vaginal or anal sex.
  • Talk to their healthcare provider about PrEP and PEP. When used consistently by a person without HIV, pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis can lower the chances of transmission. PrEP is most often recommended for people without HIV in relationships with people with HIV, but it can be used in other situations as well. Online sources for finding a PrEP provider include PrEP Locator and PleasePrEPMe.
  • What Are The Treatments For Hiv/aids

    There is no cure for HIV infection, but it can be treated with medicines. This is called antiretroviral therapy . ART can make HIV infection a manageable chronic condition. It also reduces the risk of spreading the virus to others.

    Most people with HIV live long and healthy lives if they get and stay on ART. It’s also important to take care of yourself. Making sure that you have the support you need, living a healthy lifestyle, and getting regular medical care can help you enjoy a better quality of life.

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    How Is Lymphocytopenia Treated

    Your lymphocytopenia treatment will depend on how severe your condition is and the underlying condition that is causing it. Mild lymphocytopenia often needs no treatment.

    Your doctor will treat infections you may have, as a low lymphocyte count makes it difficult for your body to fight infections.

    If you have a blood disease or inherited disease, your doctor will talk to you about other treatment options. Research is being done to find methods for increasing lymphocyte count in people with lymphocytopenia that results from a severe underlying disease. One proposed method is blood and marrow stem cell transplant. The procedure may cure or treat the conditions causing a decreased lymphocyte count.

    How Does Hiv Affect The Body

    HIV Resources &  FAQ

    The human immune system involves many types of cells which guard against germs responsible for most diseases. The immune system’s most important guard cells are B-cells and T-cells, which are special white blood cells. B-cells and T-cells cooperate to fight any germ that attacks the human body.

    B-cells produce particular proteins, called antibodies, that try to neutralize the invading germ. After a person recovers from an infection, these antibodies continue to circulate in the bloodstream, acting as part of the immune system’s “memory.” Immune system memory explains why a person rarely suffers a second attack from an infectious disease such as measles. If the same germ is encountered again, the antibodies will recognize and neutralize it. T-cells attack the germ directly and try to kill it.

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