Sunday, May 29, 2022

Which Of The Following Can Transmit Hiv

It Would Take Too Many Bites

Is it possible to transmit HIV through saliva?

HIV actually isnt very easily transmittable. It takes a large amount of the virus being transmitted for someone to contract it.

Even if some HIV were still in a mosquitos body when it bit you if it had yet to be fully digested there wouldnt be enough of it to transmit to you.

HIV is transmitted through direct contact with certain bodily fluids that contain HIV. These fluids include:

  • blood
  • rectal fluids

These fluids must enter the persons body for them to contract HIV.

HIV is mainly transmitted through sex without a condom or other barrier method, and through the sharing of needles.

In some cases, HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. However, antiretroviral therapy can greatly lower the risk of this occurring, and its safe to take during pregnancy.

HIV is highly unlikely to be transmitted through saliva.

HIV can only be transmitted when a person with the virus has a detectable viral load . Taking daily medication for HIV can lead to an undetectable viral load, which means HIV cant be transmitted to others.

How Is Hiv Not Transmitted

HIV is not transmitted by saliva, tears, sweat, urine or feces. HIV does not survive well outside the human body. It cannot be transmitted through casual contact with a person who has HIV, or through objects such as toilet seats, doorknobs or dishes used by a person who has HIV.

In the past, some people got HIV after receiving a blood transfusion or organ or tissue transplant. However, Canada implemented HIV screening for all blood and tissue donations in 1985.

References

  • Wilton J. From exposure to infection. The biology of HIV infection. Prevention in Focus. Fall 2011. Available from:
  • Arkell C. HIV and the female genital tract what does it mean for HIV prevention? Prevention in Focus. Fall 2016. Available from:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Transmission. HIV Transmission. Available from:
  • Khan Academy. Transmission of HIV. Available from:
  • Patel R, Borkowf CB, Brooks JT et al. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: a systematic review. AIDS. 2014 28:150919.
  • Ball LJ, Puka K, Speechley M et al. Sharing of injection drug preparation equipment is associated with HIV infection: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019 81:99103.
  • C. Arkelle

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    How Is Hiv Diagnosed

    Diagnosis of HIV infection during infancy depends on the detection of the virus. Since all infants born to HIV-infected mothers have a positive antibody test at birth because of the passive transfer of the HIV antibody across the placenta, virological testing is used to confirm the diagnosis.

    For infants born to HIV-infected mothers, viral diagnostic testing is usually performed within the first 2 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 4 to 6 months of age. A diagnosis of HIV infection can be made with two positive virologic tests obtained from different blood samples.

    For children over 18 months, adolescents, or adults, diagnosis is made by testing the blood for the presence of HIV antibody.

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    What Is Hiv And Aids

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that infects the immune system. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . AIDS is the most advanced stage of the HIV infection and causes the immune system to become vulnerable to other infections. HIV can also be known as “the AIDS virus.”

    The full name for AIDS describes several of the characteristics of the disease.

    Acquired indicates that it is not an inherited condition.

    Immune Deficiency indicates that the body’s immune system breaks down.

    Syndrome indicates that the disease results in a variety of health problems.

    It takes on average, 5-10 years for the initial HIV infection to progress to AIDS if not treated. While there is presently no cure or vaccine for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be managed and a near-normal lifespan can be expected with early treatment.

    Body Fluids That Transmit Hiv

    Which of the following diseases caused by virus, is ...

    What body fluids transmit HIV?

    Only certain body fluids from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids include

    • blood,
    • vaginal fluids, and
    • breast milk.

    These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.

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    Ways Hiv Can Be Transmitted

    How is HIV passed from one person to another?

    Most people who get HIV get it through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment . But there are powerful tools that can help prevent HIV transmission.

    Can I get HIV from anal sex?

    You can get HIV if you have anal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

    • Anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV.
    • Being the receptive partner is riskier for getting HIV than being the insertive partner .
    • The bottoms risk of getting HIV is very high because the rectums lining is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex.
    • The top is also at risk because HIV can enter the body through the opening at the tip of the penis , the foreskin if the penis isnt circumcised, or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis.

    Can I get HIV from vaginal sex?

    You can get HIV if you have vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

    Can HIV be transmitted from a mother to her baby?

    HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, it is less common because of advances in HIV prevention and treatment.

    Can I get HIV from sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment?

    You are at high risk for getting HIV if you with someone who has HIV. Never share needles or other equipment to inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone.

    How Can A Person Who Is Hiv Positive Prevent Passing Hiv To Others

    Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART cannot cure HIV, but it can reduce the amount of HIV in the body . One of the main goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.

    Here are some other steps you can take to prevent HIV transmission:

    • Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
    • Talk to your partner about taking PrEP.
    • If you inject drugs, do not share your needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with your partner.

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    Lowering The Risk Of Sexual Transmission

    There are several protective measures which dramatically reduce the risk of HIV transmission during sex. You can find out more about these on other pages.

    Undetectable viral load: when people with HIV take effective treatment, the amount of HIV in their body fluids falls drastically, to the point where they cannot pass HIV on to their sexual partners. An extremely low level of HIV in body fluids is referred to as an undetectable viral load. The knowledge that this prevents transmission is often referred to ‘Undetectable equals Untransmittable’ .

    PrEP: if the HIV-negative person takes antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis , this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV. The most common form of PrEP is in a tablet, but it can also be provided as a vaginal ring or an injection.

    Condoms: if male condoms or female condoms are used, this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV.

    Male circumcision: if you are circumcised, this partially lowers your risk of acquiring HIV during vaginal sex.

    How Is Hiv Treated

    Which of the following is not a cause of transmission of HIV ? | 12 | HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE |…

    Australians can live well with HIV. Treatments have changed over time, dramatically improving the quality and length of life for someone who is HIV positive.

    It is also important to have a strong support network. Evidence suggests that involving others can improve your mental health and wellbeing and help you maintain treatment.

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    How Much Do Hiv Tests Cost

    Unlike rapid tests, blood tests for HIV are covered by Medicare, which means your doctor can order the test free of charge for you.

    If you are not eligible for Medicare, you may also be able to claim some of the testing costs through private health insurance. Check with your provider to see if youre eligible.

    How Does Hiv Spread

    HIV spreads when infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids enter the body. Because symptoms can be mild at first, people with HIV might not know they’re infected. They can spread HIV to others without knowing it.

    HIV can spread:

    • during sex
    • through sharing needles for injecting drugs or tattooing

    HIV also can pass from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

    HIV does not spread through:

    • pee, poop, spit, throw-up, or sweat
    • coughing or sneezing
    • sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses

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    How Can You Get Hiv

    HIV is found in the following bodily fluids of someone living with the virus:

    • blood
    • vaginal fluids
    • breastmilk.

    For you to get HIV, these bodily fluids need to get into your blood through a mucous membrane , via shared injecting equipment, or through broken skin .

    There is not enough HIV virus in other bodily fluids, like saliva, sweat or urine, to transmit it from one person to another.

    Someone living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load, meaning effective treatment has lowered the amount of virus in their blood to levels where it cannot be detected by a normal blood test, cannot pass on HIV.

    A person living with HIV with a detectable viral load can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.

    HIV is most infectious in the first few weeks after infection. At this time many people are unaware of their status.

    The main ways you can get HIV are:

    Occupational Exposure To Bloodborne Pathogens

    which of the following are not a way of transmission of ...

    Occupational exposure means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infected materials that may result from the performance of an employees duties.

    Exposure incident means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that results from the performance of an employees duties. Examples of non-intact skin at risk include skin with dermatitis, hangnails, cuts, abrasions, chafing, or acne.

    Occupational groups that have been widely recognized as having potential exposure to HBV/HCV/HIV include, but are not limited to, healthcare employees, law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency response, and public service employees.

    The compliance directive of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, CPL 2-2.69, may be consulted for guidance. For more information or assistance, contact a Department of Labor and Industries consultant in your area. Check the blue government section of the phone book for the office nearest you.

    Test Your Learning

    Answer: d

    Bloodborne Pathogens

    Blood and OPIM

    Bodily fluids that have been recognized and linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to which Standard Precautions apply, are:

    • Blood
    • Amniotic fluid
    • Saliva in dental procedures
    • Specimens with concentrated HIV, HBV and HCV viruses

    Exposure Control Plan

    Bloodborne Pathogens Training

    Online Resource

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    Factors That Increase The Risk Of Sexual Transmission

    Not every act of unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person results in HIV transmission. But other factors can make HIV transmission more likely.

    pre-exposure prophylaxis

    Antiretroviral drugs used by a person who does not have HIV to be taken before possible exposure to HIV in order to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection. PrEP may either be taken daily or according to an event based or on demand regimen.

    If the HIV-negative person has an untreated sexually transmitted infection , the risk is greater.

    Just as HIV treatment and an undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission, a high viral load makes it more likely. Viral load refers to the quantity of HIV in a persons body fluids. It is extremely high in the first few weeks after a person is first infected with HIV. It may also be high if a person does not take HIV treatment and has advanced disease. People who have HIV without realising it cannot take HIV treatment, so there is a strong possibility that they have a high viral load.

    Hiv Transmission In Australia

    In Australia, HIV is commonly transmitted through:

    HIV is not transmitted by:

    • kissing, hugging, massaging, mutual masturbation and other body contact
    • social interaction
    • sharing food, dishes, utensils, drinking glasses
    • air, breath, or being coughed or sneezed on
    • mosquito, insect or animal bites
    • use of communal facilities .

    It is perfectly safe to consume food and drinks prepared by someone who is HIV-positive even if theyre not receiving treatment.

    People with HIV who are on treatment and achieve and maintain an undetectable HIV viral load cannot transmit HIV sexually.

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    Hiv Stigma And Discrimination

    HIV can prompt intense feelings in people, regardless of their HIV status. It is sometimes viewed with a sense of unacceptability or disgrace. A person with HIV may feel shame and despair about their status. An HIV-negative person may be fearful or angry when they discover someone has HIV. The relationship of these feelings to HIV is referred to as stigma.Felt stigma refers to deep feelings of shame and self-loathing, and the expectation of discrimination. It can have serious negative impacts on the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV by discouraging them from getting tested, receiving support, or taking treatment. It may also lead people to engage in high-risk behaviours that harm their health, and contribute to new HIV infections.Enacted stigma is the experience of unfair treatment by others. For people living with HIV this can be in the form of being treated differently and poorly, or through rejection, abuse, or discrimination.HIV stigma is particularly harmful when it overlaps with other factors that are stigmatised such as if a person uses drugs, is a sex worker, is trans or gender diverse.Breaking down stigma is a community response where:

    If you have experienced stigma or discrimination from a health care provider, and are unable to resolve your complaint with them directly, contact the Health Complaints Commissioner

    Effective Barriers Against Hiv

    Only one of the following four ways through which AIDS can spread | 12 | HEALTH AND DISEASE | BI…

    There are many effective barriers that prevent infection.

    Skin: Skin is an excellent barrier against HIV, unless there is an open cut or open wound. Infectious fluid on skin is NOT a route for infection.

    Mucous membranes in the mouth, throat and stomach: These membranes are good barriers against HIV infection, so long as there are not cuts, ulcers or sores.

    Saliva: Saliva contains proteins and a low salt content that actively reduce its infectiousness. Even when HIV is detected there is too little to cause infection. HIV is not transmitted by kissing including deep kissing. Spit cannot transmit HIV.

    Air: HIV is not transmitted by air.

    Latex and rubber: Condoms prevent infection from HIV and many other sexually transmitted infections.

    Many sexual situations have no risk of transmitting HIV.

    These include masturbation , kissing and deep kissing, receiving oral sex and vaginal or anal sex using a condom correctly.

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    How Hiv Is Spread From Person To Person

    In the United States, HIV is mainly spread through anal and vaginal sex without protection and sharing needles, syringes, and drug injection equipment.

    Transmission from mother to child:

    HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. However, advancements in HIV prevention and treatment have made mother-to-child transmission less common.

    It is recommended that pregnant mothers test for HIV and begin treatment immediately if the mother is diagnosed. The risk of transmitting HIV to the baby is less than 1% if a mother with HIV takes HIV medicine daily as prescribed throughout pregnancy and childbirth, and gives HIV medicine to her baby for 4 to 6 weeks after giving birth. It is also recommended in the United States that mothers do not breastfeed their child after birth.

    Rare cases of HIV transmission include:

    Factors Affecting Hiv Transmission

    The Presence of Other STDs

    The presence of other sexually transmitted diseases increases the risk for HIV transmission, because the infected person may have a much larger number of HIV-infected white blood cells present at the site of infection. The infected persons immune system may be less able to suppress or combat HIV infection. Lesions from STDs break down the protective surface of the skin or mucous membrane, which makes the infected person more vulnerable to other infections.

    The presence of a co-infection with other STDs increases the risk of HIV transmission because:

    • STDs like syphilis and symptomatic herpes can cause breaks in the skin, which provide direct entry for HIV.
    • Inflammation from STDs, such as chlamydia, makes it easier for HIV to enter and infect the body.
    • HIV is often detected in the pus or other discharge from genital ulcers of HIV-infected men and women.
    • Sores can bleed easily and come into contact with vaginal, cervical, oral, urethral, and rectal tissues during sex.
    • Inflammation appears to increase HIV viral shedding and the viral load in genital secretions.

    Multiple Partners

    Use of Non-Injecting Drugs

    Gender and Equality Issues

    In some cultures, females are not encouraged to learn about their bodies, sex, birth control, or sexuality topics, while some other cultures promote the value of the male having multiple sexual partners but discourage the same behavior in females. Gender inequality places women at risk for contacting HIV.

    Casual Contact

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