What The Results Mean For You
This study clearly shows that men with an undetectable viral load in blood may have detectable HIV in semen. About 1 in 20 men who had a blood viral load below 40 copies had HIV that could be detected in semen.
Research has not determined if the low levels of HIV in these men’s semen could result in HIV transmission from a man to a woman, or from a man to a man. But certainly there is some risk that a man with detectable HIV in semen can pass the virus to a sex partner.
The researchers who conducted this study believe health workers should advise couples with an HIV-positive male partner to continue using condoms during sex and to use safe techniques like sperm washing if they want to conceive a child.
Taking antiretroviral therapy lowers the risk of transmitting HIV to a sex partner. And reaching an undetectable viral load in blood greatly lower the risk of transmission. But the findings of this study suggest that the transmission risk may not be zero when viral load is undetectable in blood.
This study included only heterosexual men. But there is no reason to assume that the main result does not apply to gay men as well: Men with an undetectable viral load in blood may have detectable HIV in semen. For now, even men who have an undetectable viral load in blood should probably use condoms when having sex.
Why Does The Color Of Semen Change And What Does It Mean
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Healthy semen is cloudy white in color with a jelly-like consistency similar to that of a raw egg. Slight changes in the color, texture, and even the smell of semen may be normal and shouldnt be a problem. In some cases, changes in the color of the semen can be a sign of an underlying problem. The possible reasons are the presence of blood in the semen or infections, both of which require medical attention.
This article explores changes in semen color and texture, their causes, and what it can mean.
How Are Hiv And Aids Treated
Medicines can help people with HIV stay healthy. They can also prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS.
Health care providers prescribe a combination of different medicines for people with HIV and AIDS. They must be taken exactly as prescribed or they won’t work. These medicines:
- help keep the number of CD4 cells high
- reduce the viral load of HIV
Regular blood tests will check the number of CD4 cells in the body and the viral load.
If an HIV-positive person’s CD4 count gets low, doctors prescribe daily antibiotics. This prevents pneumocystis pneumonia, which happens in people with weakened immune systems.
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How The Study Worked
The study focused on HIVpositive French men who requested sperm washing from 2002 through 2011. All men were heterosexual and had a stable relationship with a female partner. All men were taking combination antiretroviral therapy.
The researchers measured virus in paired blood and semen samples from each man. The tests used to measure HIV could detect as few as 40 copies of HIV RNA per milliliter of blood and 100 copies per milliliter of semen.
In one third of the men, the researchers also used more sensitive tests to measure HIV RNA in blood and HIV DNA in blood cells. HIV DNA is the form HIV takes when resting inside cells that it infects. These sensitive tests could detect 1 copy of HIV RNA per milliliter of blood and 5 copies of HIV DNA per 150,000 blood cells.
Is Seeing Blood In My Semen Normal
No, seeing blood in your semen is not normal, but it could be a result of:
- Leaking of blood from a small blood vessel that bursts during ejaculation the same way that a person gets a nose bleed after blowing their nose.
- Trauma from a recently performed urologic procedure, such as a vasectomy or prostate biopsy.
- An injury to a structure of the male reproductive system .
- An infection.
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Types Of Treatments That Are Available For This Problem
- Use of antibiotics if an infection is an STD or a Bacterial infection.
- Anti-viral medication if the infection is due to virus.
- Surgery where the issue is due to an internal problem which may require opening up of the skin.
- Therapy sessions can also be used for treatment of this problem.
Other types of coloring that you may see in your semen
- Red semen- this can be an indication that you are suffering from blood mixing with semen. This is a problem which should be treated soonest when you notice that you are suffering from this problem.
- Green semen- this can be caused by an infection on your prostrate or tissues that surrounding it.
- Yellow semen this can be caused by mixing of the semen with urine which can give it this color.
- Sometime the problem may not be the color but rather the viscosity of the semen. This is a problem of inflammation of the genitourinary tract.
Therefore if you ever notice any of the above symptom then you can guess what might be wrong with you, but you should visit the doctor to carry out further tests on you, to know what is exactly wrong with you.
Hiv Can Be Found In Semen Even When Viral Load Is Undetectable In Blood
HIV can be detected in semen of men who have an undetectable viral load in blood, according to results of a 304-man study. This finding underlines the importance of using condoms when having sex, even if a man is taking antiretroviral therapy and has an undetectable viral load in blood. If HIV can be detected in semen — even at low levels — there may be a chance that it can be transmitted to a female or male sex partner.
Several studies show that sex partners of HIV-positive people taking antiretrovirals have a lower risk of becoming infected with HIV than do partners of people not taking antiretrovirals. As a result, some HIV experts and public health officials believe everyone with HIV should start antiretroviral therapy as a way to prevent the spread of HIV. U.S. antiretroviral guidelines say everyone with HIV should start antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count.
Some officials argue that antiretroviral-treated people with an undetectable viral load in blood and without another sexually transmitted infection can safely have sex without a condom because they are highly unlikely to pass their HIV along to a sex partner. But this proposal remains controversial, partly because studies in the past 10 years show that HIV can be detected in semen even when it is not detected in blood.
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Sperm Washing To Prevent Hiv Transmission From Hiv
Reports on the use of sperm washing to prevent HIV transmission, from HIV-infected men but allowing conception in sero-discordant couples, are currently limited to observational studies. No randomised controlled trial has assessed the benefit or risk of sperm washing to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected men but allow conception in sero-discordant couples. Thus, this systematic review identifies the need for a multicentre randomised controlled trial assessing the benefits and possible risks of sperm washing in preventing HIV transmission from HIV-infected men but allow conception in sero-discordant couples.
Sperm washing is a term used to describe the process in which individual spermatozoa are separated from the seminal fluid. Sperm washing is used to prevent HIV transmission but allow conception in sero-discordant couples, where the male is HIV positive, but the female is HIV negative. This procedure is based on the observation that HIV cannot attach itself to spermatozoa, but it can be found in the fluid and cells surrounding spermatozoa.
To determine the benefits and harms of sperm washing of HIV-infected males when used to prevent the transmission of HIV but allowing conception in the HIV-negative female.
Presence Of Urine In Semen
If you have just peed and then ejaculated, some of the urine that might have got stuck in the urethra could have got mixed with the semen showing up as yellowish urine.
Yellow semen when you should see a doctor?
If the colour of your semen is yellow every time you ejaculate, you need to see a good sexologist near you immediately. Urinary Tract Infection , BPH , infection of prostate or other organ in your reproduction system could be the reason for yellow semen.
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Cell Culture And Infection
Human PBMCs were purified by ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with 100U/ml penicillin, 100g/ml streptomycin, 2mmol/l l-glutamine and 10% fetal bovine serum. PBMCs were activated with PHA for 72h and cultured with IL-2 for 24h before and after infection. CD4+ T cells were purified from PHA-stimulated PBMC by negative selection . Of the resulting cell population, 97% was CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes, which underwent IL-2 stimulation for 24h before and after infection. PBMCs or purified CD4+ T cells stimulated with PHA and IL-2 were seeded at 2×105cells/well in 96 well flat-bottom plates in 100l of medium. HIV-1 SF162 or IIIB strains were mixed with serial dilutions of SP in 11l of inoculum to achieve final SP concentration on the cells of 1, 0.2, 0.04 or 0%. Each condition was tested in triplicate. Inoculums were removed by centrifugation after 3h of exposure and fresh medium added. After 3 days of culture, supernatants were collected and frozen for p24 viral protein assay by ELISA . Cell viability was systematically assessed in all the infectivity experiments. The number of viable PBMCs was evaluated as per the manufacturer’s instructions using the CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay . PBMC viability at different time points was also assessed using the amine-reactive red dye . Acquisition was performed with a FACScalibur flow cytometer and CELLQuestPro Software was used for analysis.
What If You Have No Semen
A dry orgasmâ when a man reaches a sexual climax but does not ejaculate â can be extremely unnerving. In most young men it isn’t a problem, and is usually just a result of repeated orgasm, whereby the genitals simply ‘run out’ of seminal fluid, and therefore no liquid is produced. Dry orgasms can be a side effect of taking some anti-depressant medications.
However, in older men who have undergone prostate surgery, radiotherapy or other treatments in the prostatic area, this could be a sign of retrograde ejaculation. ‘As men age, seminal fluid volume and the power of ejaculation can fall as the prostate gland slowly enlarges, causing a change in passing urine due to obstruction,’ says Davies.
As men age, seminal fluid volume and the power of ejaculation can fall as the prostate gland enlarges.
‘Men can be prescribed drugs to alleviate urinary obstruction however they can reduce the power of ejaculation and in some circumstances alter ejaculation so that semen is not expressed through the penis but back into the bladder. This is known as retrograde ejaculation.’
It may sound drastic, but it’s pretty much just down to a realignment of male plumbing and shouldn’t cause any damage. The only change you’ll notice is that your urine will appear cloudy, and climaxes may not feel as intense.
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What Different Textures May Mean
Along with alterations in color, changes in texture can also worry some people. These texture changes can vary based on different factors.
- lifestyle choices such as activity levels
- alcohol use
- drug use
A temporary change in semen texture should not generally cause concern. Even simple issues, such as temporary dehydration, may lead to thicker semen in the short term.
However, texture changes that occur alongside other semen issues, such as a foul odor or color change, may be a sign to see a doctor.
Opportunistic Infections In Men
As opposed to the acute stage of infection, the symptoms of chronic HIV are primarily related to the development of OIs rather than the virus itself.
In men and women, the expression of these OIs remains more or less the same. At CD4 counts of between 250 and 500, common OIs include candidiasis , herpes simplex, herpes zoster , bacterial pneumonia, bacterial and fungal skin infections, tuberculosis, and HIV-associated meningitis.
The differences between sexes, if any, mainly involve those of the anal and genital tracts. In men with chronic HIV infection, these symptoms may include:
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Diagnosing Or Treating Prostate Issues
When your doctor is diagnosing prostate issues and wants you to get a biopsy done, a piece of tissue from the prostate is removed and sent to the lab. During this process, some blood may get mixed with the ejaculatory fluids.
During surgery of prostate, some blood might get leaked into the ejaculatory ducts that can turn the semen into pink or red colour. In most cases, this information would have conveyed to you before undergoing the procedure.
Sharing Injection Drug Equipment
- having other types of sexually transmitted infections
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What Are The Causes Of Blood In Semen
The most likely cause of blood in semen are:
- Trauma from a prostate biopsy. You may see blood for up to four weeks after the procedure.
- Trauma from a vasectomy. You may see blood for over a week.
- Treatment of prostate cancer with external beam radiation or brachytherapy.
- A seminal tract infection or inflammation.
- Leaking of blood from a small blood vessel that bursts during ejaculation — the same way that a person gets a nose bleed after blowing their nose.
Other potential causes or associated conditions may include:
- Sexually transmitted infections : Including gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other viral or bacterial infection.
- Prostate conditions: Including benign prostatic hyperplasia, acute bacterial prostatitis, cysts and polyps.
- Testicular and epididymis conditions: Including orchitis, epididymitis.
- Seminal vesicle disorders: Including stones and cysts.
- Blood disorders: Including clotting disorders or sickle cell disease.
- Chronic infections: Including tuberculosis or schistosomiasis.
- Cancers: Including testicular/epididymal cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, seminal vessel cancer, urethral tumor. It’s rare for such cancers to present with their first symptom of blood in semen.
- Other medical problems: Including severe, uncontrolled high blood pressure human immunodeficiency virus , liver diseases, and leukemia .
Why Might I Need A Vasectomy
Choosing a vasectomy as a form of birth control may be a good choice if:
- You are an adult male.
- You are in a stable relationship and both partners agree to permanent birth control.
- Pregnancy would be a health risk for your partner.
- You or your partner has a genetic disorder that you dont want to pass on to a child.
Vasectomy may not be the best choice for you if:
- You are not sure if you want to have children in the future.
- You may have other partners in the future.
- You plan to have children by reversing your vasectomy.
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What Happens During A Vasectomy
Vasectomy is almost always done under local anesthesia. That means the area is numbed, but you are awake. It takes about 30 minutes and is done as an outpatient. This means you go home the same day.
Generally, vasectomy follows this process:
What Are The Symptoms Of Later Hiv
As HIV weakens someones immune system, they may experience signs of other illnesses:
- weight loss
- an increase in herpes or cold sore outbreaks
- swollen glands in the groin, neck or armpit
- long-lasting diarrhoea
But remember: people who dont have HIV can also get any of these they can be the signs of other illnesses.
A weakened immune system may leave someone more open to serious infections such as:
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What Does Blood In Semen Mean
If your semen has a red or brown appearance, it is more than likely due to a burst blood vessel and is usually nothing to worry about. Within a day or two, semen should return to its normal colour.
If your semen has a red or brown appearance, it is usually nothing to worry about.
‘Blood in the semen is an alarming symptom for any man,’ says Davies.
‘However, it is rare for there to be a serious underlying condition. Common causes include leak of blood from fragile blood vessels within the semen storage areas, which are called the vesicles.’
If the discolouration continues for longer than a few days, this may be a result of infection, trauma or cancer, and you should visit your GP.