Thursday, May 19, 2022

Which Group Represents The Majority Of New Hiv Infections

New Hiv Diagnoses Among Gay And Bisexual Men In The Us And Dependent Areas By Race/ethnicity 2019

There’s a reduction in new HIV infections among youth: AIDS Council

* Black refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America. Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.

From 2015 to 2019, HIV diagnoses decreased 9% among gay and bisexual men overall. But trends varied for different groups of gay and bisexual men.

People With Diagnosed Hiv In 44 States And The District Of Columbia 2019*

* The 44 states are AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, IA, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,NE, NV, NH, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, and WY. Had 2 viral load or CD4 tests at least 3 months apart in a year. Based on most recent viral load test.

If I Am Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Also Have Hiv

Most women with HIV can protect their baby from becoming infected during pregnancy. Proper pre-natal treatment can reduce the risk that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus to her child to less than 1 percent. The only way these special treatments can be provided is if the health care professionals know the mother is living with HIV. Treatment is most effective when started early in pregnancy. HIV-positive moms should not breastfeed their babies because HIV is sometimes passed this way.

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Hiv Prevention Programmes In The Usa

In 2017, an estimated 38,700 people became newly infected with HIV.66

In an attempt to advance high-impact HIV prevention across the USA, between 2012 and 2017, CDC created a new prevention fund cycle for US $339 million. Grants were awarded to health departments that could demonstrate they were providing HIV prevention services to those with the greatest need. Services also had to show they used combined behavioural, medical and structural HIV prevention strategies.67

In 2019, CDC announced a new 10-year plan to end the HIV epidemic. The programme aims to reduce new HIV infections by 75% in five years and by 90% in 10 years. It focuses on Washington, D.C., San Juan , 48 counties and seven states that have a substantial rural HIV burden. Its key components are described as being diagnose, treat, protect, and respond the latter two components relate to HIV prevention. Protect relates to using evidence-based prevention interventions, while respond relates to detecting and responding to growing HIV clusters to disrupt chains of transmission, thereby preventing new infections.68

Barriers To Hiv Testing For Young People

HIV Statistics &  Epidemiology

The World Health Organization 2013 guidelines for HTC for adolescents highlight the programmatic barriers currently preventing adolescents from accessing HIV testing, and what can be done to overcome them.101

In many countries, the age of consent for testing for HIV is high at around 18 to 21, leaving people younger than this having to obtain parental consent. This is much more likely to result in a young person not getting an HIV test when discussions with parents around sexual relations and HIV are necessary. For many orphaned young people, parental consent is not an option and so they are denied access.102 Age of consent laws to HIV testing should be removed.

HTC services must be open at appropriate times , and be at appropriate venues where young people feel safe enough to go alone.103 Healthcare workers must be trained to meet the needs of young people, in order that they do not face stigma, judgement, or a breech in confidentiality. Young people need extra support to transfer to treatment if they test positive, as they may otherwise get lost in the treatment cascade.104

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Biden Says Hiv/aids Strategy Needs To Confront Inequity

WASHINGTON President Joe Biden on Wednesday unveiled his new HIV/AIDS strategy to end the more than 40-year-old epidemic, calling for a renewed focus on vulnerable Americans including gay and bisexual Black and Latino men, who his administration says are too often stigmatized even as they are disproportionately affected.

The new strategy, which declares racism a public health threat,” was released on the annual commemoration of World AIDS Day. It is meant to serve as a framework for how the administration shapes its policies, research, programs and planning over the next three years.

But Biden acknowledged that the country still needs to work to destigmatize HIV/AIDS and noted that LGBT and racial minority groups have endured the brunt of the epidemic that’s killed more than 36 million worldwide, including 700,000 Americans.

“I want to make sure that everyone in the United States knows their HIV status, and everyone with HIV receives high-quality care and treatment that they deserve and that we end the harmful stigma around HIV and AIDS,” Biden said.

The new strategy asserts that over generations structural inequities have resulted in racial and ethnic health disparities that are severe, far-reaching, and unacceptable.

African Americans make up about 13% of the U.S. population but accounted for more than 40% of new infections. The Latino population accounted for nearly 25% of new infections but makes up about 18.5% of the U.S. population.

Between 2000 And 2019 153 Million Lives Were Saved Due To Art

The total number of new HIV infections saw a 39% reduction between 2000 and 2019. Moreover, the HIV mortality rate has also decreased by 51%. All in all, this remarkable achievement resulted from the efforts of the national HIV programs, supported by international development partners and civil society.

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Engaging Young People In The Response

Young people have the potential to be great peer educators, and to help in the design of HIV-related services and programmes. Technology and social media are consistently being proved as effective ways to engage young people in sharing HIV knowledge.

The use of peer educators and social media have been combined by the Y+ Programme, a platform for young people living with HIV to talk, find a mentor, become a mentor and advocate for the needs of young people.76 Similarly, ACT!2030, is a youth-led social action initiative which aims to inspire a new wave of activism in the HIV response using social media and online technology to advance young peoples SRHR. It is active in 12 countries: Algeria, Bulgaria, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.77

Engaging Schools In The Response

HIV Increase

Schools have the potential to provide detailed education on HIV and AIDS and other SRHR issues. More progress needs to be made to ensure there is equality in access to schools by both girls and boys, and to prevent them from dropping out.74

However, a study of schools in rural Zimbabwe published in 2016 found many teachers felt they lacked formal SRHR skills . Teachers defined their role predominantly in terms of the transmission of factual knowledge and the exercise of discipline, with the notion of care and support not fitting easily into this framework. Many were overwhelmed by the extent of pupils needs relative to the lack of resources available.75

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In Order To Ramp Up Our Efforts In The Fight Against Aids There Is A Need For More Concentrated Focus On Adolescents And Young People

Adolescents and young people represent a growing share of people living with HIV worldwide. In 2020 alone, 400,000 young people between the ages of 10 to 24 were newly infected with HIV, of whom 150,000 were adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. To compound this, most recent data indicate that only 25 per cent of adolescent girls and 17 per cent of adolescent boys aged 15-19 in Eastern and Southern Africa the region most affected by HIV have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received the result of the last test. The testing rates in West and Central Africa and South Asia are even lower. If current trends continue, there will still be some 183,000 annual new HIV infections among adolescents in 2030.

HIV in adolescents

In 2020, about 1.75 million adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 were living with HIV worldwide. Adolescents account for about 5 per cent of all people living with HIV and about 11 per cent of new adult HIV infections. About 1.5 million live in sub-Saharan Africa. Outside of sub-Saharan Africa, the highest numbers of HIV-positive adolescents are in Asia and Latin America.

In some sub-Saharan countries, adolescent girls are two to three times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age group. However, HIV does not only affect sub-Saharan Africa, and in 2020, 18 per cent of adolescents newly infected with HIV lived outside of the region.

Interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents

Eastern Europe And Central Asia Show The Greatest Increase In Hiv Ratesa 72% Rise In 20102019

Even though AIDS statistics by country show that incidence and infection rates are dropping on the global level, specific locations are actually getting worse. Namely, in Eastern Europe, most HIV infections occur in Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, along with Eastern Europe and Central Asias increase, the Middle East and North Africa have seen a 22% rise in new HIV infections, according to HIV and AIDS statistics.

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Age Group And Sex Distribution

Data on age groups were available for nearly 100% of reported HIV cases for 2017 . The 3039 year old age group continued to represent the highest number of new HIV cases , a finding that has been observed since the beginning of the reporting period. In 2017, the 50 years and older age group represented the second highest proportion of new HIV cases at 22.9%, followed closely by the 4049 year old age group at 22.4%.

shows the trends in the diagnostic rates for each age group, between 2013 and 2017. In 2017, the 3039 year old age group had the highest rate of reported HIV cases , followed by the 4049 year old age group in addition, rates in these age groups have been increasing since 2015 . Although there was an overall increase in the rates for the 1519 year old age group and the 50 years and older age group since 2014, the rates decreased in 2017 . Children had the lowest average rate over the five-year range.

HIV diagnosis rate, by age group and year of testCanada, 20132017

Abbreviation: < , less than

Population data source: Annual Demographic Statistics, Statistics Canada

Data on sex were available for nearly 100% of reported HIV cases in 2017 . Since the beginning of HIV surveillance, males have accounted for a larger percentage of diagnosed HIV cases among adults . In 2017, 75.2% of reported HIV cases were male and 24.8% were female.

Hiv Infections By Age

Percentage of new HIV infections by risk group [12 ...

The largest percentage of new infections in 2010 occurred among people aged 25-34 , followed by those aged 13-24 , and those aged 35-44 . An additional 15 percent occurred among people aged 45-54, and 5 percent among those aged 55 and older. Comparing 2008 to 2010, the number of new HIV infections remained stable in every age group.

Methods for Estimating National HIV Incidence

CDC’s HIV incidence surveillance methodology is based on an approach known as STARHS . STARHS uses a special test that classifies newly diagnosed infections as either long-standing or recent .

Before this surveillance methodology was developed, HIV diagnosis data provided the best indication of recent trends in key populations. However, diagnosis data do not indicate when an individual was actually infected, because infection can occur many years before a diagnosis. For this analysis, CDC applied the STARHS technology to new HIV diagnoses in 18 states and two cities — a larger number of surveillance areas than had been available for previous analyses. CDC identified the number of new diagnoses in a given year that represented new infections and, using a complex statistical model, extrapolated these data to the general population to provide national estimates of HIV incidence.

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The Hiv Virus Was First Identified As Such In 1983 By French Researchers

In 1983, the HIV virus was isolated and finally identified in the Pasteur Institute in France. One of the more interesting HIV/AIDS facts is that it was first called lymphadenopathy-associated virus . At the same time, scientists in the National Cancer Institute in the US isolated that same virus, naming it HTLV-III.

Us Aids Statistics Note That The First Case Of Hiv In The Us Was Reported In 1981

Of course, it was not recognized and named as such at the time. Notably, the first-ever case was recorded in 1981, on June 16. That day, a 35-year-old man checked in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. However, the patient passed away just a few months later, in October of the same year.

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The Use Of The Term Four

Among the more disturbing facts about HIV is that it was a source of a great deal of stigmatization and discrimination in its beginning. Namely, the main at-risk groups in the early stages of the epidemic were homosexuals, hemophiliacs, Haitians, and heroin addicts. This was both due to how easily it transferred among these groups, as well as the diseases geographic origins. In brief, all these individuals were, and to some extent still are, exposed to discrimination.

The Global Distribution Of Deaths From Hiv/aids

Primary HIV Infection – HIV Early Detection and Treatment

In some countries HIV/AIDS is the cause of more than a quarter of all deaths

Globally, 1.7% of deaths were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2017.

This share is high, but masks the wide variations in the toll of HIV/AIDS across the world. In some countries, this share was much higher.In the interactive map we see the share of deaths which resulted from HIV/AIDS across the world. Across most regions the share was low: across Europe, for example, it accounted for less than 0.1% of deaths.

But across some countries focused primarily in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa the share is very high. More than 1-in-4 of deaths in South Africa and Botswana were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2017. The share was also very high across Mozambique Namibia Zambia Kenya and Congo .

Death rates are high across Sub-Saharan Africa

The large health burden of HIV/AIDS across Sub-Saharan Africa is also reflected in death rates. Death rates measure the number of deaths from HIV/AIDS per 100,000 individuals in a country or region.

In the interactive map we see the distribution of death rates across the world. Most countries have a rate of less than 10 deaths per 100,000 often much lower, below 5 per 100,000. Across Europe the death rate is less than one per 100,000.

Across Sub-Saharan Africa the rates are much higher. Most countries in the South of the region had rates greater than 100 per 100,000. In South Africa and Mozambique, it was over 200 per 100,000.

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In 2019 The Us Spent Over $348 Billion To Fight Hiv

HIV/AIDS facts affirm that these funds allow for a comprehensive way to address this health problem. Out of these $34.8 billion, $28 billion was for domestic HIV efforts. Whats more, of the domestic epidemic funds, $21.5 billion was allocated for care, $2.6 billion for research, $3.1 billion for cash and housing assistance, and $0.9 billion for prevention.

Us Response To The Global Epidemic

The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for nearly 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2020 and, as of September 30, 2020, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.2 million men, women, and children.

In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.

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More Than 15% Of People Who Have Hiv In The Us Are Not Aware They Are Infected

Many people simply dont know they have HIV, and the most likely reason is that the initial HIV symptoms arent usually that severe, or they may seem similar to other issues.

Whats more, the number of newly diagnosed HIV cases exceeds the death count each year, showing that more and more people are living with this condition. In other words, its not the death sentence it once was.

What Is The Difference Between Hiv And Aids

Distribution of new HIV infections among population groups ...

The term AIDS refers to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. Most of the conditions affecting people with AIDS are opportunistic infections that generally do not affect healthy people. In people with AIDS, these infections are often severe and sometimes fatal because the immune system is so ravaged by HIV that the body cannot fight off the infection. Symptoms of opportunistic infections common in people with AIDS include:

  • coughing and shortness of breath
  • seizures and lack of coordination
  • difficult or painful swallowing
  • severe headaches
  • coma

People with AIDS also are particularly prone to developing various cancers. These cancers are usually more aggressive and difficult to treat in people with AIDS.

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