List Of Diseases Caused By Bacteria And Viruses In Humans
Most human infections in the world today are either caused by viruses or bacteria. Bacteria are small single celled organisms and are amongst the most successful life forms on the planet. A virus is a micro organism and it is usually very difficult to kill.
Usually, viruses and bacteria can cause diseases. Bacteria are larger and capable of reproducing on themselves while viruses are much smaller and are not capable of reproducing on their own. A virus reproduces inside the living cell of the host.
How Long Does It Last
The duration of diarrhea in a person with HIV depends on its cause. That person might only experience diarrhea as part of an acute infection syndrome. And they might notice fewer episodes after a few weeks.
Diarrhea may clear up after switching to medications that often dont cause this side effect. Making certain lifestyle changes or taking medications prescribed to treat diarrhea may provide immediate relief.
Another problem that may affect duration of diarrhea is malnutrition. People with chronic HIV who are malnourished may experience worsened diarrhea. This issue is more common in developing nations where malnutrition is a problem for people with and without HIV. One study estimated that
How Can You Prevent Getting Opportunistic Infections
The best way to prevent OIs is to take HIV medication daily as prescribed so that you can get and keep an undetectable viral load and keep your immune system strong.
It is also important to stay in HIV medical care and get lab tests done. This will allow you and your health care provider to know when you might be at risk for OIs and discuss ways to prevent them.
Some of the ways people living with HIV can reduce their risk of getting an OI include:
- avoiding exposure to contaminated water and food
- taking medicines to prevent certain OIs
- getting vaccinated against some preventable infections
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Associated Types Of Cancer
higher risk of various types of cancer, including lymphoma.
Kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus, also known as human herpesvirus 8, causes a type of cancer that involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels. These can develop anywhere in the body. The cancer is called Kaposis sarcoma, and if it reaches organs such as the intestines or lymph nodes, it can be extremely dangerous. On the skin, a doctor may recognize characteristic solid, purple or pink spots, which may be flat or raised.
In addition, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have strong links to HIV infection. These affect the lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues.
Also, a female with HIV should recieve regular checks for cervical cancer. Receiving an early diagnosis can help limit the cancers spread.
Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional review board of Hawassa University College of medicine and health science. Then support letter were obtained from the hospital administration. Written informed consents were obtained from each study participants. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulation as mentioned by Declaration of Helsinki.
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Infectious Load Of The Starting Material And Test Methods
Due to donor selection, testing of donations for HIV antibodies and HIV-1 genome , the probability of blood and blood products to be contaminated with HIV is very low, with an estimated residual risk of below 1 in 1 million . In addition, plasma for fractionation, which is obtained by plasmapheresis, is frequently stored for an inventory hold period of at least 60 days before further processing. If an HIV infection is confirmed in a donor, earlier samples are re-tested in the context of a look-back process, and infectious donations from donors in the seroconversion phase still in stock can be discarded. This voluntary measure further reduces the theoretical viral load of plasma pools for the production of plasma derivatives.
History Of Bacterial Diseases
There are numerous examples of evidence found in the form of sculptures and books that portrayed these bacterial infections from the early Egyptian and even ancient Chinese the time for hundreds of years. Although we live in a modern age with advancements in biotechnology and medicine, the most common causes of death around the world continue to be bacterial infection. Find out more about the history here.
The following diseases are considered to be the most serious list of bacterial diseases that even the most powerful antibiotics available today arent able to kill.
Rare Bacterial Infection On News: In May 2017 the Aquarium located in Vancouver, BC had a strange incident in which a young girl was dragged due to a sea-lion. the video was viewed by millions via social networks. According to Aquarium officials the girl may have contracted a rare bacterial infection known as Seal finger. A particular type of bacteria known as Mycoplasma bacteria is found in mouths of sea mammals. The Aquarium accident, girl contracted the bacteria through the bite of a sea lion. If this infection is left untreated the person who contracted it might lose fingers, and possibly the limbs.
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Feasibility And Validation Of Procedures For Removal/ Inactivation Of The Infectious Agent
Validation of the various removal and inactivation steps must be carried out following the actual production processes using HIV . HIV can be propagated to sufficient amounts in cell culture, enabling the spiking of the different source materials under laboratory conditions. Individual steps have to be investigated mimicking the different production processes with regard to their virus removal or inactivation capacity by determining the infectious titres at the start and the end of each production step. Because HIV-1 and HIV-2 are considered to have identical inactivation characteristics, it is sufficient to use HIV-1 for the validation of an inactivation method. Although HIV-1 and SIVmac239 2) show similar properties in inactivation experiments , the use of SIV is not accepted.
Which Is The Most Common Std Caused By Bacteria Quizlet
Terms in this set
- Chlamydia. The most common bacterial STD in the U.S. It produces inflammation of the reproductive organs.
- Syphillis. This STD enters the body through tiny breaks in the mucous membranes and then burrows its way into the bloodstream.
. People also ask, which is the most common STD caused by bacteria?
STIs can be caused by viruses or bacteria. STIs caused by viruses include hepatitis B, herpes, HIV, and the human papilloma virus . STIs caused by bacteria include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
One may also ask, which organism is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection quizlet? Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by infections that are passed from one person to another during sexual contact. A sexually transmitted disease, the most common in developed countries, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
People also ask, which of the following STDs is caused by a type of bacteria?
There are three major causes of STDs/STIs: Bacteria, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viruses, including HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus , and Zika.
Which is the most prevalent bacterial STD quizlet?
Chlamydia trachomatis, an organism responsible for the most prevalent STD in the United States, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.
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Urine Culture And Biochemical Test
Using a calibrated loop 0.001 ml of well-mixed un-centrifuged urine was inoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. The inoculated media were incubated at 3537 °C for 24 h and examined for the growth of bacteria. For identification of Gram negative bacteria, bacterial colony was sub-cultured onto nutrient broth. Then, the nutrient broth was inoculated on biochemical test culture medias such as Triple sugar iron agar, Simmons citrate agar, Lysine iron agar, Urea, Motility tests, and Indol. Identification of species was done by their characteristics in the respective culture media as per the standard. Species identification for Gram positive bacteria was carried out using catalase and coagulase test.
Hiv And Opportunistic Infections
When someone with HIV has a weakened immune system , they are at risk of opportunistic infections. These are illnesses that are more common among those with weak immune systems. If your immune system is strong, it can normally stop you from getting these infections.
Common opportunistic infections associated with HIV include:
- cryptococcal meningitis
- oesophageal candidiasis
- certain cancers, including Kaposis sarcoma.
If you have a low CD4 count, there are medicines available that can prevent opportunistic infections. However, being on effective ART and keeping your CD4 count up is the best way to avoid opportunistic infections.
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Dietary Influence On Gut Bacteria
Several factors influence the density, diversity, and activity of the gut bacteria.
However, some dietary factors may be harmful, such as dietary iron. Dietary iron mostly from red meat and fortified cereals can also change the gut bacteria composition. Other luminal iron is from cigarette smoking. Increased iron availability may increase the proliferation and virulence of gut bacteria and increase the permeability of the gut barrier. A study showed that increased iron exposure contributed to the colonization of certain bacterial pathogens including Salmonella . It may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The composition of intestinal bacteria could also be regulated by traditional Chinese herbs. The five hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives from Rheum palmatum had inhibitive effects on Bifidobacterium adolescentis growth . The most effective component in R. palmatum to restrain the growth of B. adolescentis was rhein.
How Can A Person With Hiv Prevent Passing Hiv To Others
Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. One of the goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partner through sex.
If your viral load is not undetectableor does not stay undetectableyou can still protect your partner from HIV by using condoms and choosing less risky sexual behaviors. Your partner can take medicine to prevent getting HIV, which is called pre-exposure prophylaxis . PrEP is an HIV prevention option for people who do not have HIV but who are at risk of getting HIV. PrEP involves taking a specific HIV medicine every day to reduce the risk of getting HIV through sex or injection drug use.
To learn more, read the HIVinfo Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis fact sheet.
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What Is An Std
STD stands for sexually transmitted disease, also called sexually transmitted infections . STDs are infections that spread from person to person through sexual activity, including anal, vaginal, or oral sex. STDs are caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.
Many health care providers use the term infection instead of disease, because a person with an infection may have no symptoms but still require treatment. When untreated, an STI can become a disease.
HIV is a sexually transmitted infection, but it can progress to a disease called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome when HIV infection is untreated with HIV medicines. Other examples of STDs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and syphilis.
Gut Bacteria In Health
The main gut bacterial phyla, in the order of numerical importance, are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria . Firmicutes are gram-positive bacteria with a low G + C content, including the large class of Clostridia and the lactic acid bacteria, while Actinobacteria are gram-positive bacteria with a high G + C content, including Colinsella and Bifidobacterium spp. Lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacteria are two important types of gut bacteria, which are autochthonous ones from birth or acquired from digested food. Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp. are the main lactic acid bacteria found in the human intestine. Bifidobacterium spp. is the predominant bacteria found among the first colonizers of newborns, and persists at a low level in adults . Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, including contributing to the host gut defense system and helping the gut to maintain normal function, while its composition can be influenced by the host .
Reciprocal relationship between human gut bacteria and the host.
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The Effects Of Hiv On The Body
Most people are likely familiar with HIV, but they may not know how it can affect the body.
HIV destroys CD4 cells , which are critical to the immune system. CD4 cells are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from common diseases and infections.
As HIV gradually weakens the bodys natural defenses, signs and symptoms will occur.
Find out what happens when the virus enters the body and interrupts its systems.
Once HIV enters the body, it launches a direct attack on the immune system.
How quickly the virus progresses will vary by:
- a persons age
- how quickly theyre diagnosed
The timing of their treatment can make a huge difference as well.
HIV targets the types of cells that would normally fight off an invader such as HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4 cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells.
Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving a person at risk for serious illnesses and infections.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the final stage of HIV. At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater.
However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier a person receives treatment, the better their outcome will be.
Early on, HIV symptoms may be mild enough to be dismissed.
Using Safe Injection Practices
Intravenous drug use is a key means of HIV transmission. Sharing needles and other drug equipment can expose a person to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C.
Anyone who injects any drug should do so with a clean, unused needle.
Needle exchange and addiction recovery programs can help reduce the prevalence of HIV.
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Respiratory And Cardiovascular Systems
HIV makes it hard to fight off respiratory problems such as the common cold and flu. In turn, an HIV-positive person may develop related infections, such as pneumonia.
Without treatment for HIV, advanced disease puts an HIV-positive person at an even greater risk for infectious complications, such as tuberculosis and a fungal infection called pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia .
PJP causes trouble breathing, cough, and fever.
The risk of lung cancer also increases with HIV. This is due to weakened lungs from numerous respiratory issues related to a weakened immune system.
According to available research , lung cancer is more prevalent among people with HIV compared to people without it.
People with HIV are more likely to develop high blood pressure. HIV also raises the risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension . PAH is a type of high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs. Over time, PAH will strain the heart and can lead to heart failure.
If a person has HIV with a low CD4 count, theyre also more susceptible to tuberculosis .
TB is an airborne bacterium that affects the lungs. Its a leading cause of death in people who have AIDS. Symptoms include chest pain and a bad cough that may contain blood or phlegm. The cough can linger for months.
Causes Of Diarrhea In Hiv
Diarrhea in HIV has many possible causes. It can be an early symptom of HIV, also known as acute HIV infection. According to the Mayo Clinic, HIV produces flu-like symptoms, including diarrhea, within two months of transmission. They may persist for a few weeks. Other symptoms of acute HIV infection include:
Although these symptoms are like those of seasonal flu, the difference is that a person may still experience them even after taking over-the-counter flu medications.
Untreated diarrhea is especially dangerous. It can lead to dehydration or other life-threatening complications.
Initial transmission of the virus isnt the only cause of diarrhea with HIV. Its also a common side effect of HIV medications. Along with diarrhea, these medications can cause other side effects like nausea or abdominal pain.
Antiretroviral medications carry a risk of diarrhea, but some classes of antiretrovirals are more likely to cause diarrhea.
The class with the greatest chance of causing diarrhea is the protease inhibitor. Diarrhea is more often associated with older protease inhibitors, like lopinavir/ritonavir and fosamprenavir , than newer ones, like darunavir and atazanavir .
Anyone taking an antiretroviral who experiences lasting diarrhea should contact their healthcare provider.
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Curing A Viral Infection
Antibiotics are useless against viral infections. This is because viruses are so simple that they use their host cells to perform their activities for them. So antiviral drugs work differently to antibiotics, by interfering with the viral enzymes instead.Antiviral drugs are currently only effective against a few viral diseases, such as influenza, herpes, hepatitis B and C and HIV but research is ongoing. A naturally occurring protein, called interferon , can now be produced in the laboratory and is used to treat hepatitis C infections.
Data Processing And Analysis
The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The bivariate regression model was employed to examine the associations between dependent and independent variables. Based on the bivariate analysis a variables with P value0.25 were selected for further analysis using a multivariable regression model. A P value< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and results were presented by using odds ratio and 95% level of confidence.
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