A Viral Load Test Will Let You Know If You Are Undetectable
If youre living with HIV and want to know if youre undetectable, the right test for you is Similar to nucleic acid tests to detect HIV infection, HIV viral load tests measure the number of copies of HIV in a milliliter of your blood. Its recommended that people living with HIV getHIV viral load tests generally every 3 to 6 months, in addition toother lab tests that measure your CD4 count and more.
The bottom line is that if youre living with HIV and have an undetectable viral load, you will still test positive for HIV if you get tested. But, this is expected, and doesnt mean that your treatment is not working or that you arent undetectable. As always, check with your HIV care provider if you have questions about what HIV test is right for you, or what types of tests will give you the answers you need to best care for your health.
San Francisco AIDS Foundation offers a variety of free, confidential sexual health services includingHIV and STI testing,linkage to HIV care,PrEP and more.
What Abnormal Results Mean
A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection.
A negative test result does not rule out HIV infection. There is a period of time, called the window period, between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies. During this period, antibodies and antigen may not be measured.
If a person might have acute or primary HIV infection and is in the window period, a negative screening test doesn’t rule out HIV infection. Follow-up tests for HIV are needed.
Oral Fluid And Urine Hiv Testing
An FDA-approved EIA known as OraQuick Advanced is available for the testing of human immunodeficiency virus -1 and HIV-2 in oral fluid and blood in non-clinical settings . In addition, there are the Avioq HIV-1 Microelisa System as well as the DPP HIV-1/2 Assay . While the DPP HIV-1/2 Assay can also be used to test whole blood, the Avioq HIV-1 Microelisa System can only be used with oral fluid and dried blood spots.
The main concern with the oral fluid test has been clusters of high rates of false-positive results in several US cities, mainly New York City and San Francisco. When whole-blood specimens were used for testing, there was no observed increase in false-positive rates. The CDC and the Food and Drug Administration are aware of these reports and have recommended continued use of rapid HIV testing on oral fluid as long as test subjects are informed of the need for additional testing in case of a positive result.
The urine test Calypte HIV-1 is an EIA test that requires administration by a physician. Positive results should be followed by confirmation with a serologic test.
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Who Should Undergo Testing For Stis
A sexually active individual requires undergoing testing for sexually transmitted infections. Additionally, it becomes necessary to head to the test center if:
- You are beginning a new relationship
- You are not thinking about using condoms
- You or your partner has multiple partners
- You sure symptoms that suggest the presence of sexually transmitted infection
If you are already in a monogamous long-term relationship, you and your partner do not require regular testing to assess the condition. However, many couples never underwent a test before entering a relationship. If you belong to this category, then it is preferable to head for a test to ensure that there are no signs of disease.
Screening Donor Blood And Cellular Products
Tests selected to screen donor blood and tissue must provide a high degree of confidence that HIV will be detected if present ” rel=”nofollow”> sensitivity is required). A combination of antibody, antigen and nucleic acid tests are used by blood banks in Western countries. The World Health Organization estimated that, as of 2000, inadequate blood screening had resulted in 1 million new HIV infections worldwide.
In the US, the Food and Drug Administration requires that all donated blood be screened for several infectious diseases, including HIV-1 and HIV-2, using a combination of antibody testing and more expeditious nucleic acid testing . These diagnostic tests are combined with careful donor selection. As of 2001, the risk of transfusion-acquired HIV in the US was approximately one in 2.5 million for each transfusion.
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What Are The Rapid Hiv Test Options
In the past, the only way to get tested for HIV was to go to a doctors office, hospital, or community health center. Now there are options for taking an HIV test in the privacy of ones own home.
Some HIV tests, whether taken at home or at a health facility, are even able to deliver results within 30 minutes. These are known as rapid tests.
How Can You Prevent Hiv
HIV can be spread by people who don’t know they are infected. To protect yourself and others:
- Practice safe sex. Use a condom every time you have sex until you are sure you and your partner are not infected with HIV.
- Don’t have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest sex is with one partner who has sex only with you.
- Talk to your partner before you have sex the first time. Find out if he or she is at risk for HIV.
- Get tested together and retested 6 months later. Use condoms in the meantime.
- Don’t drink a lot of alcohol or use illegal drugs before sex. You might let down your guard and not practice safe sex.
- Don’t share personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors.
- Never share needles or syringes with anyone.
Sonora Quest Laboratories is committed to the fight against HIV and AIDS, supporting various programs and fund-raising events through The Apothecary Shops, Aunt Ritas Foundation, the Southern Arizona AIDS Foundation, and the Southwest Center for HIV/AIDS. Our expansive HIV test offerings allow us to assist doctors and patients in all stages of the disease.
To learn more about HIV/AIDS, talk with your doctor, go to your local health department, or visit:
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New Study Finds Hpv Can Be Detected Through Urine Testing
A new study conducted by British researchers found that human papillomavirus can accurately be detected through a simple urine test. HPV, which is the most common sexually transmitted infection, can lead to cervical cancer and other major medical issues. This is good news, for in the past HPV screening had to be done using a pap smear, an invasive procedure that makes many women uncomfortable. This is perhaps why many women are anxious or refuse to get tested. While more testing needs to be done to determine how the urine test would be implemented clinically on a global level, this is a promising breakthrough that may encourage women to get tested for HPV. Moreover, urine testing could prove much more cost-effective than pap smears and if more women regularly get tested, it could help prevent cases of cervical cancer.
How Do Hiv Tests Work And What’s Involved
- There are plenty of places which offer free HIV testing you can find your nearest provider either by searching online or asking a healthcare professional.
- Testing for HIV is a simple and pain-free process. It involves giving a small sample of blood or oral fluid.
- Your results will be confidential and the healthcare provider will be able to explain the process and answer any questions you have. They are there to help you.
- HIV tests are very reliable. Some HIV tests will give a result within 20 minutes and others are sent to a lab so it may take a few weeks to get your results.
It is really common to feel a little worried about going for an HIV test, but making the decision to test is the best thing you can do for your health. The process is quick, painless, confidential and almost always free.
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Purpose Of Urine Testing For Stis
It used to be that STI testing, particularly for bacterial STIs, was very uncomfortable.
Men who thought they might have a bacterial STI like chlamydia or gonorrhea got tested by having a swab inserted into their urethra. Women had to undergo a pelvic exam, during which a cervical swab would be taken and tested for bacteria.
The fact that STI testing was uncomfortable and invasive made it less likely that people would undergo regular STI screening.
That probably contributed to what is sometimes known as the hidden epidemic of asymptomatic STIs. Because many STIs have no symptoms, the only way to detect them is through testing. When people aren’t tested regularly, they can spread STIs to their partners without even knowing it.
Urine testing makes it easier for people to undergo STI testing as part of their regular medical care. Note, however, that STI testing is still not a standard part of most annual exams.
Accuracy Of Hiv Testing
Modern HIV testing is highly accurate. The evidence regarding the risks and benefits of HIV screening was reviewed in July 2005 by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The authors concluded that:
…the use of repeatedly reactive enzyme immunoassay followed by confirmatory western blot or immunofluorescent assay remains the standard method for diagnosing HIV-1 infection. A large study of HIV testing in 752 U.S. laboratories reported a sensitivity of 99.7% and specificity of 98.5% for enzyme immunoassay, and studies in U.S. blood donors reported specificities of 99.8% and greater than 99.99%. With confirmatory Western blot, the chance of a false-positive identification in a low-prevalence setting is about 1 in 250 000 .
Many studies have confirmed the accuracy of current methods of HIV testing in the United States, reporting false-positive rates of 0.0004 to 0.0007 and false-negative rates of 0.003 in the general population.
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Urine Testing Proves An Accurate Measure In Hiv Screening
HIV-1 testing by using urine samples is an accurate, safe and more acceptable way to screen for the disease, according to collaborative researchers at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Columbia University, and the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. The study, which compared the results of blood and urine samples from study participants, appears in the November issue of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Senior author Ronald Gray, MD, MSc, professor, Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, said, “Screening for HIV in populations is critical for public health and using urine samples has advantages over blood testing because it does not require the use of needles. Also, urine collection is a safer alternative because urine does not contain the infectious HIV virus which can be inadvertently transmitted to health workers through the handling of blood. The disposal of urine samples is also cheaper and simpler than the disposal of potentially infected blood specimens.”
Where Can I Get An Hiv Test
Depending on where you are in the world, there are a number of places that you can get tested for HIV. The best first step is to search online for “HIV testing, plus your location. This will generally give you a good idea of where to go, or at least give you a starting point.
If you have limited internet access, its always worth asking local sexual health charities or health professionals what is available in your area. They should be able to direct you to somewhere where you can test for free. The image below has some examples of the types of places that might offer HIV testing.
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What Are The Benefits Of Home Hiv Tests
HIV is much easier to manage and treat if its identified early and treatment is started as soon as possible.
Home HIV tests allow people to receive results almost immediately sometimes within minutes without having to wait for an appointment with a healthcare professional or take time out of their schedule to visit a lab.
Early identification is essential for successful long-term treatment and survival with HIV.
Home tests empower people to learn whether they have the virus earlier than any other testing methods. This can help them limit the virus effect on them and on others around them.
Early identification can even protect people they do not know, as their sexual partners could potentially contract HIV and then transmit it to others.
Early treatment can suppress the virus to undetectable levels, which makes HIV untransmittable. The CDC considers any viral load of
During the early stages, which is known as primary infection or acute HIV infection, it can be much easier for a person to transmit HIV to others because levels of virus in the blood are very high.
A person should consider taking an HIV test if they experience these symptoms after the following activities:
- having sex without a condom or another barrier method
- injecting drugs
Diagnosis Of Hiv Infection
Tests used for the diagnosis of HIV infection in a particular person require a high degree of both sensitivity and specificity. In the United States, this is achieved using an algorithm combining two tests for HIV antibodies. If antibodies are detected by an initial test based on the ELISA method, then a second test using the western blot procedure determines the size of the antigens in the test kit binding to the antibodies. The combination of these two methods is highly accurate
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An Innovative Hiv Testing Service Using The Internet: Anonymous Urine Delivery Testing Service At Drugstores In Beijing China
Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaoxia He, Guowu Liu
Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing
Affiliation National HIV/HCV Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China
Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaoxia He, Guowu Liu
Roles Data curation
Affiliations Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China, Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China
Where Can You Take The Std Test
If the doctor suggests you to take the STD test, head to the testing center immediately to identify the infection in the beginning stage. Such a step helps in developing a cure that reduces the advancement of the bacteria and kills it as time passes. You can take the test at a sexual health clinic. The doctor has to report a positive case to the government. With the help of the data provided by the doctor, the government keeps track of the individual, which will be helpful for public health initiatives. Notifiable STDs include:
You may come across a few online testing websites and at-home testing kits. Make it a point to avoid them because they do not provide accurate results when compared with that of the testing center. Furthermore, you can check with the Food and Drug Administration whether they approved the kits or the online testing facility.
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Can A Regular Blood Test Detect Hiv
Routine blood work is in fact a battery of separate tests, all run on samples of your blood. Each test looks for a different thing. While there’s no reason why the tests shouldn’t include a specific test for HIV, this isn’t necessarily routine practice.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages medical professionals to routinely offer HIV testing to people living in areas where HIV is a common medical problem. They should also offer testing to people whose behavior may put them at increased risk. But patients should be specifically informed that HIV testing is part of routine care and have the opportunity to decline HIV testing.
And implementation of the CDC’s guidance is patchy. While an HIV test could be included with your routine blood work, there’s a very strong chance that it isn’t.
Typical routine blood tests include the complete blood count that measures your red and white blood cell numbers as well as hemoglobin and other numbers. Abnormal increases or decreases in these cell counts may indicate that you have an underlying medical condition that calls for further evaluation. But this is not a sensitive test for HIV infection.
Other tests often included examine your blood glucose, calcium, electrolyte, cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
You could ask your healthcare provider whether he or she could include an HIV test alongside your other blood tests.
Importance Of Hiv Testing
If you have the virus, finding out quickly means you can start treatment right away so you can feel better and live a long, full life. You can also take steps so you don’t pass HIV to other people.
Pregnant women should get tested because early treatment means you probably wonât pass it to your baby.
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The Healthcare Worker There To Help You
Before you test, your healthcare worker will talk to you about your sexual health and why youve decided to test. This is to help them understand your situation so they can offer you the best services and advice.
Remember, the healthcare professional is not there to judge you. There will be nothing you can say that they havent heard before so be honest with them, and ask as many questions as you want. Thats what theyre there for.
You should never feel pressured to test. The results will be completely confidential but you should only go through with it if you want to.
What Std Can Be Found In A Urine Test
Sexually transmitted infections or called sexually transmitted diseases require immediate attention to prevent the occurrence of severe health problems. The problems include cancer, blindness, infertility, and organ damage. According to the statistics provided by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, around 20 million people suffer from several sexually transmitted infections each year.
Unfortunately, many people do not receive the required treatment at the right time because of the absence of symptoms in the early stages. The humiliation surrounding the test to find out the presence of an STI also discourages from participation. However, testing is the only method to identify the presence of sexually transmitted infection.
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