Oral Manifestations Of Hiv
Submitted: May 9th 2012Reviewed: August 31st 2012Published: April 10th 2013
- Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria
*Address all correspondence to:
Clinical Latency Stage Of Hiv Infection
The symptoms during ARS may last for a few weeks, according to the National Institutes of Health.
After this point, the infection progresses to the clinical latency stage, a period during which the virus reproduces at very low levels, but it is still active.
Also known as asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection, the clinical latency stage typically causes no HIV-related symptoms.
For people who are not taking any anti-retroviral medication for their infection, the clinical latency stage lasts for 10 years, on average, but it may progress quicker.
ART, though, can keep the virus from growing and multiplying, prolonging the clinical latency state for several decades.
It’s important to note that people living with HIV in the clinical latency stage are contagious and can still transmit the virus to other people. But, as the CDC notes, people who take ART exactly as prescribed and maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV negative-partner through sex.
Symptoms Specific To Men
It’s important to note that these male-specific symptoms can also be signs of other conditions. If you have any of these, make sure to speak with your doctor.
- Breast tissue growth
Pain or burning while peeing. In most cases, this is a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection like gonorrhea or chlamydia. It may signal swelling of the prostate, a small gland beneath the bladder. This condition is called prostatitis. Itâs sometimes caused by a bacterial infection.
Other symptoms of prostatitis include:
- Pain during ejaculation
- Peeing more often than usual
- Cloudy or bloody pee
- Pain in the bladder, testicles, penis, or the area between the scrotum and rectum
- Lower back, abdomen, or groin pain
If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, see a doctor right away. If itâs been 72 hours or less, you can take something called post-exposure prophylaxis . You take HIV medicine once or twice a day for 28 days that may keep you from getting HIV.
If you have been exposed to HIV, there are other symptoms that aren’t exclusive to men but are important to keep an eye on.
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If The Test Is Positive
If the screening test is positive, you will be given your results and a packet of information. Blood work will also be done to confirm the results from the Oral Point of Care Test, but these results will not be available right away. In the meantime, you should avoid activities that transmit the virus. All positive test results will be referred to the Family AIDS Clinic and Education Services Clinic at Nationwide Childrens Hospital. The FACES staff has over 30 years of experience working with HIV. They provide many services to persons living with HIV. Appointments include time with a nurse, social worker, doctor, dietitian, peer navigator, and pharmacist. When a referral is received at the FACES clinic and labs are reviewed, staff will contact you to set up an appointment.
What Does An Hiv Rash Look Like
Usually HIV infection leads to a brief period of symptoms shortly after infection occurs. Not everybody notices these symptoms, and theyre easy to mistake for a cold or the flu. One of the symptoms may be a rash.
The most common HIV rash occurs shortly after infection. It is an itchy rash that usually appears on the abdomen, face, arms, or legs and features a flat, red area covered in small red bumps.
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How Is Oral Hairy Leukoplakia Diagnosed
Oral hairy leukoplakia patches are easy to identify. Healthcare providers can often diagnose it from a physical exam alone. Oral candidiasis, or thrush, can be similar in appearance. However, your healthcare provider can often remove thrush growths on the tongue. This helps your healthcare provider to tell the difference between the two conditions.
A biopsy of one of the patches can confirm the diagnosis. But, this test usually isnt done unless the patches look unusual, or if they suspect cancer or another rare condition.
Sudden Unexplained Weight Loss
National Human Genome Research Institute
Weight loss is common in people living with HIV during the advanced stages of the disease. This is not about the loss of just a few pounds. This is the sudden, unexplained loss of 10% or more, in which both fat mass and lean muscle are lost.
Also known as HIV wasting syndrome, the condition is seen less often today due to the use of antiretroviral drugs that keep the virus suppressed and allow the immune system to rebuild itself. Wasting is mainly seen in people who have not been treated for HIV.
The exact cause of HIV wasting is unknown, but it is thought that the constant inflammation caused by HIV increases the speed at which energy is burnt and reduces testosterone levels needed to build lean muscle.
Other common causes of wasting include malnutrition, chronic diarrhea, tuberculosis, and cancer, all of which require urgent diagnosis and treatment.
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The Most Common Symptoms Of Seroconversion Are:
- sore throat
- rash over the body.
Seroconversion is a sign that the immune system is reacting to the presence of the virus in the body. Its also the point at which the body produces antibodies to HIV. Once seroconversion has happened, an HIV test will detect antibodies and give a positive result.
Seroconversion illness happens to most people shortly after infection. It can be severe enough to put someone in hospital or so mild that its mistaken for something like flu although a blocked or runny nose is not usually a symptom.
If you do have HIV, your body fluids are highly infectious during the early weeks and months after transmission. However, once youre on effective treatment and your viral load becomes undetectable you cannot pass on HIV.
It can take up to six months from starting treatment to become undetectable.
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Rashes Caused By Another Infection Or Condition
Rashes associated with HIV can develop indirectly as the virus weakens the immune system. HIV destroys the cells of the immune system that are designed to fight infections, so if you are exposed to another virus, you may be more likely to become infected. If youre susceptible to rashes due to other conditions, you may experience more of these rashes because your immune system is already compromised.
- Insect bites or stings
The severity of your rash may depend on how healthy your immune system is. People with HIV need to monitor their health very closely, so its wise to make an appointment with your medical provider if you notice a rash developing. In addition, try to avoid itching the skin where the rash is since broken skin could increase the risk of infection.
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What Does Hiv Sores Look Like
Usually HIV infection leads to a brief period of symptoms shortly after infection occurs. Not everybody notices these symptoms, and theyâre easy to mistake for a cold or the flu. One of the symptoms may be a rash. The most common HIV rash occurs shortly after infection. It is an itchy rash that usually appears on the abdomen, face, arms, or legs and features a flat, red area covered in small red bumps.
What Research Is Being Done
Within the Federal government, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , a component of the National Institutes of Health , supports research on the neurological consequences of HIV and AIDS. NINDS works closely with its sister agencies, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Mental Health , to fund research related to HIV and AIDS. The Office of AIDS Research coordinates AIDS research across NIH.
NINDS conducts research into how the weakened immune systems of individuals with AIDS lead to neurological illnesses. NINDS investigators are studying the JC virus, which can reproduce in the brains of people with impaired immune systems and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy . In one small NINDS study, the anti-cancer drug pembrolizumab showed promise in slowing or stopping the progression of PML. Additional research is needed to confirm results, which could lead to new investigations that help revolutionize treatment for similar chronic infections in immune compromised individuals.
Many individuals whose infection is successfully suppressed with cART experience a reactivation of the virus upon stopping treatment. Researchers are studying how a reservoir of inactive HIV is maintained in the brain. This research is a first step toward developing a means to render the virus permanently dormant or even to rid the brain of all traces of the virus.
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Hiv And Aids Timeline
From the bleakest early days of the epidemic, Johns Hopkins has been a leader in understanding, treating and preventing HIV and AIDS. Explore 35 years of progress, here and around the world, including the nations first HIV-positive to HIV-positive organ transplants, performed at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in 2016.
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Signs Of Hiv Infection
Some of the more common health problems in HIV-positive individuals are:
- Infections that keep coming back, do not go away or are more severe than in others
- Swollen glands in more than one area
- White patches in the mouth, on the tongue or in the throat that do not go away
- Diarrhea that continues for several weeks
- Repeated ear infections
- Certain kinds of tumors or cancers
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We Know That Men Who Have Sex With Men In Illinois Are At Higher Risk For Hiv What About Women Who Have Sex With Women
It is not a personâs gender, sexual orientation, race or class that puts them at risk for HIV. People are at risk for HIV when they practice risky behaviors. Women who identify as lesbian or gay can be at risk for HIV by practicing any of the behaviors that place women at risk. Lesbian women have become infected with HIV by using injection drugs or having unprotected sex with male or female partners who are already infected with HIV. Women who have sex with other women should follow guidelines in this fact sheet to protect themselves, and can call the Illinois AIDS/HIV/STD Hotline at 800-243-AIDS for specific information.
Key Points About Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
- Oral hairy leukoplakia is a condition that the Epstein-Barr virus can trigger.
- It happens most often in people whose immune systems are very weak and is most often seen in people with HIV.
- The condition causes white lesions, or patches, on the tongue.
- Treatment is aimed at treating the underlying immune problem, such as HIV.
- Oral hairy leukoplakia can be a warning sign of HIV or a severely weakened immune system.
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Is Hairy Tongue Cancerous
However, they say that oral hairy leukoplakia doesnt cause cancer at all. If you have this condition, as we said before, there is a link to HIV/AIDS, though. If you have any symptoms, speak with your health and dental professionals for a timely diagnosis so you can begin treatment right away if necessary.
Classification Of Oral Lesions Of Hiv
Oral mucosal lesions are part of the clinical criteria in a number of HIV/AIDS classification systems currently in use. This classification can be based on the etiological factors or the strength of association. EC-Clearinghouse on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection and WHO Collaboration centre on oral manifestations of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus uses strength of association of Oral lesions with HIV infection as basis for classification
|GROUP 1: Lesions Strongly Associated with HIV infection:Candidiasis:GROUP 2: Lesions Less Commonly Associated with HIV InfectionBacterial infectionsXerostomia due to decreased salivary flow rateUnilateral or Bilateral swelling of major salivary glandsThrombocytopaenic purpura
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Hiv Oral Point Of Care Test
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, causes a number of different health problems. These include AIDS . The HIV virus is passed from person to person only in certain ways:
- Sexual contact oral, vaginal or anal
- Contact with blood from an infected person
- From mother to infant
It takes many months and even years for the HIV virus to cause enough harmto the body to result in illness or disease, so an HIV-infected person may notlook sick.
A way for doctors to find out if a person has HIVis to look for HIV antibodies .Antibodies are made by the body as soon as theperson is infected with HIV. The HIV virusattacks the T-4 cells in the body that help theimmune system fight off disease.
When the immune system is badly damaged, peoplewith HIV can be infected by many different andunusual germs.
Taking Care Of Yourself When Living With Hiv
Starting antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible, and sustaining it as part of your everyday routine, is the best way of ensuring that your immune system stays strong.
Exercising regularly, eating well, getting enough rest and quality sleep are all vital to maintaining your health.
Your mental wellbeing is just as important as your physical health. Talking about your concerns with family, friends or a support group can really help.
Having HIV doesnt have to stop you living a healthy life in the way that you choose to do. With the right treatment and care, you can expect to live as long as someone who doesnt have HIV. Find out how you can look after yourself and stay healthy.
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Other Symptoms To Watch For
Since an HIV rash signals a problem with the bodys immune system, many people will experience other symptoms along with a skin rash. These symptoms may include:
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Flu-like symptoms, such as the chills, achy muscles, and a general feeling of illness
If your rash is especially large or causes swelling, you might also experience issues with mobility or getting around.
Hiv Symptoms Rash On Face
Rash is often one of the first symptoms of an HIV infection. Generally, an HIV rash appears as multiple small red lesions that are flat and raised. Rash related to HIVMeanwhile, around 80% of people with HIV develop flu-like symptoms around 26 weeks after contracting the infection. These symptoms are collectively called acute retroviral syndrome.By far the majority of people living with HIV develop skin problems. The most noticeable symptom of HIV is a rash. The skin of an HIV patient can become extremely sensitive to aggravating factors and sunlight. A rash may manifest as a flat red patch.
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Other Oral Conditions Of Hiv Disease
The two most common conditions that may not be caused by an infection include dry mouth and small round mouth sores, called aphthous ulcers.
Dry mouth, or xerostomia, is a common condition in HIV disease that may have a variety of causes. HIV disease itself may cause dry mouth because HIV-related salivary disease causes swollen salivary glands . That, in turn, reduces the amount of saliva in the mouth. A dry mouth is also a side effect of some anti-HIV drugs and other medicines like antihistamines and antidepressants. Allergies and infections may also cause dry mouth.
Though it may not seem serious, leaving dry mouth untreated may lead to problems. Without enough saliva, food can build up in the mouth, between the teeth and gums and promote tooth decay, periodontal disease and candidiasis. Furthermore, a lower flow of saliva can cause high acid levels to persist long after eating. This can wear out the enamel on the teeth leaving them more susceptible to cavities and other problems. It is common for people with dry mouth to undergo a large number of cavities, so it’s important to visit your dentist regularly if you have dry mouth.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
If you have been infected with HIV or are at risk of infection, you probably have some questions about the condition and how it can affect your baby.
You may find it helpful to jot down questions as they arisethat way, when you talk to your doctor, you can be sure that all of your concerns are addressed.
Here are some questions to get you started:
- Should I get tested for HIV?
- What can I do to prevent infection?
- Im infected. Is there any way to prevent passing it on to my baby?
- What steps can we take if my baby does get infected?
- Whats the long-term outlook for a baby with HIV?
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