Effects Of Hiv/aids On Society
HIV/AIDS has far-reaching adverse effects on the economic, cultural, and social spheres of society. The epidemic drains the economy of the country as funds need to be diverted to treat the infected patients. It is also a great economic burden on individual families with HIV/AIDS as a significant portion of the income needs to be spent on treatment procedures. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS cripples the entire society and reduced the nation’s productivity.
Screening And Extraction Protocol
We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to identify studies on HIV incidence from sub-Saharan Africa published between 1 January 2010 and 23 July 2019. The review was completed in July 2020 and the analysis in October 2020. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and OVID global health databases for peer-reviewed articles reporting directly observed estimates of HIV incidence measured through either prospective repeat testing or cross-sectional HIV incidence testing of blood samples. We used the following search terms âHIVâ, âincidenceâ and âAfricaâ as medical subject heading terms. Additional clinical synonyms and alternative spellings were also included in the search . Technical reports measuring population-level HIV incidence, but not published in peer-reviewed journals, such as the population-based HIV impact assessment surveys, were also included.
After removal of duplicates, all studies identified through the database search were uploaded to the Covidence systematic review management software and then screened by two independent reviewers . Studies first went through a title and abstract review. Those deemed eligible went through further full-text review. As defined in the protocol, any disagreement at each stage was resolved through consensus.
Global Hiv & Aids Statistics Fact Sheet
Global HIV statistics
- 38.4 million people globally were living with HIV in 2021.
- 1.5 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2021.
- 650 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2021.
- 28.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2021.
- 84.2 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
- 40.1 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
- In 2021, there were 38.4 million people living with HIV.
- 36.7 million adults .
- 1.7 million children .
- 54% of all people living with HIV were women and girls.
People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy
- At the end of December 2021, 28.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.8 million in 2010.
- In 2021, 75% of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
- 76% of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 52% of children aged 014 years.
- 80% of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment however, just 70% of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
New HIV infections
Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease
Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death
HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.
The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.
In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.
According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.
Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.
Factors Contributing To The Spread Of Hiv/aids
Since the sixteenth century, violence and disorder have upset the political and social culture of Africa. To understand the devastating spread of HIV/AIDS on the continent, one must consider events including war and desperate poverty that continue to be familiar and persistent conditions in many African nations.
MIGRATIONS. Massive migrations of displaced persons due to war, social unrest, and economic disadvantage are key contributors to the spread of the virus. In some cases, refugees flee their homelands to countries where the infection rate is already high. Upon resettlement, the refugees bring the disease home with them.
Due to economic depression, workers are forced to look for jobs far from home. For example, many from eastern and southern Africa went to work in the mines of South Africa, living in conditions of poverty and social unease. Poor hygiene, multiple sexual partners, and other social and economic factors that affect such workers promote infection at an accelerated rate.
POVERTY. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 32 of the 40 least developed UN member states. The region’s total income is about the same as that of Belgium. .
You May Like: Bluetooth Transmitter For Hearing Aids
Hiv Incidence Trends Over Calendar Time Within Study Cohorts
We also examined HIV incidence trends within studies that had more than three incidence rate measurements in unique calendar periods since 1 January 2010 . Of the 291 studies, only 38 studies reported incidence rate estimates for more than one unique calendar period , and of these studies only 10 had three or more measurements since 2010. Within nine of these studies, a decline in HIV incidence was observed over calendar time consistent with our analyses of incidence across general population studies. Of note, two of these nine studies were conducted in high-risk key populations, one among Lake Victoria fisherfolk and the other among SW , suggesting incidence reductions may not be exclusive to general population cohorts. The single outlier study showed rising incidence among pregnant women in South Africa .
HIV incidence trends from 10 studies with three or more incidence rate measurements after 2010. Data are shown overall and disaggregated by sex where possible. The legend shows the first author, sex and risk group .
The Status Of The Hiv/aids Epidemic In Sub
Senior Fellow, Futures Group International
Despite the fact that sub-Saharan Africa contains only about 11 percent of the Earths population, the region is the worlds epicenter of HIV/AIDS. The numbers are daunting. Adult HIV prevalence is 1.2 percent worldwide , but it is 9.0 percent in sub-Saharan Africa. UNAIDS estimates that at the end of 2001, there were 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 28.5 million of them from sub-Saharan African. Five million adults and children became newly infected with HIV in 2001, 3.5 million of them from sub-Saharan Africa. Three million people died from AIDS-related causes in 2001, and 2.2 million of these deaths were among sub-Saharan Africans.2
AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy at birth has plummeted in many African countries, wiping out the gains made since independence. The combination of high birth rates and high AIDS mortality among adults, including many parents, has meant that more than 90 percent of children who have been orphaned as a consequence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are in this region.2
According to UNAIDS, all the worst affected countries are contiguous to one another in the lower part of the continent. These include South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe have prevalence rates above 30 percent.4
|Total Adults and Children|
Don’t Miss: Can Untreated Chlamydia Cause Hiv
What Cdc Is Doing
aBlack refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America. This web content uses African American, unless referencing surveillance data.
bUnless otherwise noted, data in this web content are for adults and adolescents aged 13 years and older.
cAmerican Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.
Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
CDC.gov Privacy Settings
We take your privacy seriously. You can review and change the way we collect information below.
Sex Differences In Hiv Incidence Estimates Within General Population Studies
We also directly compared HIV incidence estimates between men and women within GP studies . Of the 236 studies with incidence rates reported, 108 reported incidence estimates for women only and 18 for men only. There were an additional 23 studies that reported combined estimates for men and women only, and 87 studies reported sex-stratified results. HIV incidence was typically higher among women in line with a recent systematic review of incidence among African adolescents and young adults 15 to 24 years old . Among 43 GP studies reporting 95 sex-stratified incidence estimates for age bins â¥26 years, female HIV incidence was higher in 77 instances and the median female-to-male HIV incidence ratio was 1.47 overall . A better understanding of incidence and associated risk factors for transmission among men might potentially result in lower female transmission given the large preponderance of heterosexual HIV transmission in Africa . Studies throughout Africa show lower uptake of HIV prevention and treatment interventions among men, and also lower participation rates in HIV incidence studies .
Don’t Miss: How Much Is Hiv Test
Geographical Variation In Hiv Incidence Estimates
Within eastern and southern Africa, we found evidence of substantial geographic variation in HIV incidences rates, consistent with an earlier mapping study reporting marked small-scale spatial heterogeneities in disease burden across the continent . Figure summarizes the most recent HIV incidence estimates since 2010 for GP studies in southern Africa. National estimates ranged from 0.37 per 100 pys in Malawi to 2.4 per 100 pys in eSwatini . However, by 2016 to 2017, HIV incidence declined to 1.13 per 100 pys in eSwatini.
Forest plot of HIV incidence estimates after 2010 for general population studies in southern Africa. Only the most recent HIV incidence estimate for a cohort/study population is shown. Incidence rates are reported as the number of new cases per 100 person-years and the error bars represent 95% CI. Study references are reported in Table . RCT, randomized controlled trial CSI, cross-sectional incidence study PC, prospective cohort.
Preventing Hiv Transmission From Pregnant Women To Children
The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS reported that the following sixteen African nations in 2012 “ensure that more than three-quarters of pregnant women living with HIV receive antiretroviral medicine to prevent transmission to their child”: Botswana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Eswatini, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Also Check: What Is The Treatment For Hiv And Aids
The Global Hiv/aids Epidemic
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of the worldâs most serious public health challenges. But there is a global commitment to stopping new HIV infections and ensuring that everyone with HIV has access to HIV treatment.
Number of People with HIVâThere were approximately 38.4 million people across the globe with HIV in 2021. Of these, 36.7 million were adults and 1.7 million were children . In addition, 54% were women and girls.
New HIV InfectionsâAn estimated 1.5 million individuals worldwide acquired HIV in 2021, marking a 32% decline in new HIV infections since 2010. New HIV infections, or âHIV incidence,â refers to the estimated number of people who newly acquired HIV during a given period such as a year, which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a year. Of these 1.5 million new HIV infections:
- 1.3 million were among adults
- 160,000 were among children
HIV TestingâApproximately 85% of people with HIV globally knew their HIV status in 2021. The remaining 15% did not know they had HIV and still needed access to HIV testing services. HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services.
- 85% knew their HIV status
- 75% were accessing ART
- 68% were virally suppressed
Perinatal TransmissionâIn 2021, 81% of pregnant people with HIV had access to ART to prevent transmitting HIV to their babies during pregnancy and childbirth and to protect their own health.
Countries With The Highest Rates Of Hiv/aids
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that weakens the human immune system, sometimes leading to AIDS. If detected early, HIV can be managed to prevent it from progressing to the final stage of AIDS. HIV attacks CD4 cells exposing the infected person to opportunistic infections. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and medical care are essential factors to effective management and control of AIDS which has no permanent cure. While HIV is majorly a sexually transmitted disease, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion and during birth or breastfeeding, as well as through a few other means.
You May Like: Chapter 24 Sexually Transmitted Diseases And Hiv/aids
Latest Data On Hiv Prevalence In South Africa
According to Statistics South Africa‘s mid-year population estimates for 2018, the total HIV prevalence rate for the country is 13.1%. The HIV prevalence rate for all adults aged 15 to 49 is 19.0%.Statistics South Africa estimates the number of deaths attributable to AIDS in 2017 as 126,755 or 25.03% of all South African deaths.
A 2008 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa was distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.6% of Black Africans in South Africa are HIV-positive, whereas only 0.3% of Whites living in South Africa have the disease. False traditional beliefs about HIV/AIDS, which contribute to the spread of the disease, persist in townships due to the lack of education and awareness programmes in these regions. Sexual violence and local attitudes toward HIV/AIDS have also amplified the epidemic.
Male Circumcision And Hiv
For years researchers have puzzled over why most West African countries have lower HIV-infection rates than southern and East African countries. They thought it might have something to do with the Muslim religion, widely practiced in West Africa, which imposes restrictions on womens sexual freedom. However, another likely factor is male circumcision, which is ritually practiced by Muslims and many others.
Several studies suggest that male circumcision protects both men and their sexual partners from HIV infection. This is not true of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation, which is extremely dangerous. In African countries where male circumcision is common, such as Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Benin, and the entire region of North Africa, HIV rates tend to be much lower than in countries such as Botswana, Malawi, and Swaziland. In countries with high rates of HIV, provinces and districts that have high rates of circumcision, such as Inhambane in Mozambique or Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, tend to have lower HIV rates.
Two African tribes with very high HIV-infection rates are the Zulu of South Africa and the Tswana of Botswana. Before colonial times, men in both tribes underwent circumcision rituals during adolescence. But when King Shaka united the Zulu tribe in the 1820s, he abolished the ritual, and when Christian missionaries settled in with the Tswana in the late 19th century, they declared circumcision a barbaric practice.
Recommended Reading: Local Hive Northeast Raw And Unfiltered Honey 48 Oz
Hiv And Black/african American People In The Us
Racism, systemic inequities, social and economic marginalization, residential segregation, and other longstanding barriers are key drivers of the disproportionate impact of HIV among Black or African American communities in the U.S.
The donut graph shows the estimated 34,800 people with new HIV infections in the U.S., by race and ethnicity, in 2019
A growing body of research shows that centuries of racism and discrimination in this country have had a profound negative impact on communities of color. The impact is pervasive and deeply embedded in societyaffecting where one lives, learns, works, worships, and plays and creating inequities in access to housing, quality education, wealth, employment, and a range of other social and economic benefits. These conditionsoften referred to as social determinants of healthare key drivers of health inequities, causing people within some populations to experience greater risk for poor health outcomes.
With effective prevention and treatment tools at our disposal, the nation has a decades-in-the-making opportunity to end the domestic HIV epidemic and eliminate disparities in HIV prevention and care. CDC is working with partners on many frontsincluding the federal Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. initiativeto deliver and scale up key, science-based HIV treatment and prevention strategies in innovative ways that reach populations equitably.
COVID-19 and HIV
CDCs key efforts include: